05.17.21

Virtual ‘Courts’ Aren’t Courts and Aren’t Suitable Substitutes, Either

Posted in Courtroom, Europe, Law, Patents at 4:08 am by Dr. Roy Schestowitz

Video download link

Summary: The cheapening of the concept of justice, even as the pandemic that serves to justify that cheapening is gradually being brought under control, is the real issue that should be debated in Haar (or from private homes, probably somewhere around Haar); whether it’s compulsory or not ought to be a side question

FOLLOWING last night's publication we thought it would be worth doing a quick video, even if just to explain some of the context and interject personal opinions, experiences etc.

I’m not opposed to technology; au contraire!

But at the same time I strongly reject the idea of ‘virtual’ hearings, for a whole lot of different reasons. In fact, I strongly urge EPO workers to look up the well-known (and widely-publicised) issues associated with the practice, both from a human rights perspective and the principles of due process/access to justice. There’s extensive literature on that subject. Generally speaking, the technology which now facilitates this isn’t new at all; it’s decades-old.

The Office has warped the question; instead of debating the legality of the practice they’ve all twisted it into a question like, should you seek the consent of both parties in a dispute when choosing to hold unlawful and unconstitutional ‘hearings’?

“Generally speaking, the technology which now facilitates this isn’t new at all; it’s decades-old.”Some time later today we shall publish “The EPO’s War on Justice and Assault on the Law — Part 10: A Faustian Pact?

I drop some hints in the above video; I allude to people who sell out and betray their causes in pursuit of money — quite likely the type of money they don’t truly need and will likely lack time (given their age) to ever enjoy/spend fully. It is an ego trip. Like heavy metalists on hard drugs, except without the music and the needles.

05.16.21

The EPO’s War on Justice and Assault on the Law — Part 9: Squeezing Out the Lifeblood of Democracy?

Posted in Europe, Law, Patents at 6:59 pm by Dr. Roy Schestowitz

Previously in this series:

EPO discourse
Not much sign of a lively Habermasian discourse at the EPO’s Boards of Appeal in Haar these days.

Summary: The lack of public discourse at the EPO (where tyrants like Benoît Battistelli and António Campinos make up the rules and then have them rubber-stamped by kangaroo courts) helps explain an atrocious policy and moral abyss, which recently led to acceptance of European software patents and mass surveillance disguised as “access to justice”

EPO sources relate that, in his capacity as the Thane of Haar, Carl Josefsson is extremely reluctant to allow any staff committee or union activities on the Boards of Appeal premises.

According to the EPO Staff Regulations, staff have the right to be represented by a local staff committee “where more than fifty staff members are in active employment in a place of employment”.

“…Carl Josefsson is extremely reluctant to allow any staff committee or union activities on the Boards of Appeal premises.”At the end of 2020 the Boards of Appeal had a total of 256 staff, comprised of 196 persons working as chairs and members of the Boards and 60 ancillary staff in various management/administrative support positions.

On this basis, EPO staff members in Haar clearly have a statutory right to be represented by a local staff committee.

But inside sources report that Josefsson has stubbornly resisted the establishment of such a local committee, despite repeated requests from the EPO’s Central Staff Committee.

In addition to this, the once highly active Association of the Members of the Boards of Appeal (AMBA) appears to have become almost completely defunct during Josefsson’s tenure.

“…inside sources report that Josefsson has stubbornly resisted the establishment of such a local committee, despite repeated requests from the EPO’s Central Staff Committee.”AMBA was formed in 1999 to protect the interests of the members of the Boards of Appeal.

According to its statute, the aims of the association include “monitoring issues of relevance for the judicial function of the members of the Boards of Appeal with a view to safeguarding their independence” and “promoting the members’ self-government as members of a judiciary”.

At the bottom of the home page on the Association’s website there is a “Timeline of Independence” which is supposed to show “the most important events in the history of the boards”.

This timeline contains a total of 45 entries starting in September 1973 with the “Travaux Préparatoires” for the European Patent Convention (scroll to the bottom of the page).

“AMBA was formed in 1999 to protect the interests of the members of the Boards of Appeal.”The timeline ends in December 2016 with “Carl Josefsson appointed President of the EPO’s Boards of Appeal” (scroll to the bottom of the page).

It seems that, as far as AMBA is concerned, the appointment of Carl Josefsson in December 2016, is the “End of History”. Francis Fukuyama, eat your heart out!

The AMBA website hasn’t been updated to register Josefsson’s reappointment in December 2020.

The most recent postings on the website are links to:

• the 2020 Annual Report of the Boards of Appeal (which was released on 12 April 2021);
• the revised Rules of Procedure of the Boards of Appeal (dated July 2019).
• a communiqué about the 159th meeting of the Administrative Council held on 27 and 28 March 2019.

All of the above relate to information that is already publicly available via the EPO’s official website, here, here and here. (Warning: epo.org links)

“The AMBA website hasn’t been updated to register Josefsson’s reappointment in December 2020.”It seems like the AMBA website has been reduced to nothing more than a selective “mirror” of the official EPO website.

As a matter of fact there haven’t been any postings originating from AMBA itself since December 2016 when it issued a statement [PDF] about a “Resolution Against the Relocation of the Boards of Appeal to Haar” which had been endorsed by the majority of its members. Here it is:

AMBA Statement on the Reform of the BoA page 1

AMBA Statement on the Reform of the BoA page 2

It’s well known inside the EPO that, during the Battistelli era, AMBA did its best to keep a low profile.

According to reliable sources, the members of its executive committee were afraid that they might end up being targeted by Battistelli’s Investigative Unit and suffer the same fate as SUEPO officials, such as Laurent Prunier.

“According to reliable sources, the members of its executive committee were afraid that they might end up being targeted by Battistelli’s Investigative Unit and suffer the same fate as SUEPO officials, such as Laurent Prunier.”But although AMBA was more or less reduced to operating underground during those days, it still continued to function and it was capable of organising petitions and resolutions to protest against Battistelli’s abuses, even if these were routinely ignored by the Administrative Council.

Nowadays, under Josefsson’s regime, AMBA seems to have been completely neutered. Indeed, if appearances are to be believed it has been effectively killed off as a functioning association representing the interests of the members of the Boards of Appeal.

“Nowadays, under Josefsson’s regime, AMBA seems to have been completely neutered.”To borrow a phrase from Josefsson’s old buddy, the radical Swedish journalist, Per Wirtén, one might well ask: What happened to the “cascades of debate, quarrel and chatter” that make up “the lifeblood of democracy”?

While we are waiting for “Calle” to answer that question, in the next part we will try to figure out what exactly he gets from the “Faustian pact” that he has concluded with the EPO.

05.15.21

The EPO’s War on Justice and Assault on the Law — Part 8: The Radical Student “Brotherhood”

Posted in Europe, Law, Patents at 11:14 pm by Dr. Roy Schestowitz

Previously in this series:

Per Wirtén, Andreas Miller and Alf Håkan Bengtsson
Per Wirtén, Andreas Miller and Alf Håkan Bengtsson – what would these former student radicals make of Josefsson’s abandonment of the libertarian left-wing principles that he once claimed to espouse?

Summary: The latest part in this series explores the roots of Judge Josefsson; that can help explain how Benoît Battistelli constructed his stacked EPO ‘court’, which he and António Campinos basically control to rubber-stamp whatever illegal practices they engage in (in pursuit of money and power, at the expense of the law)

During his student days in Sweden, Carl Josefsson was associated with a group of left-wing libertarian “intellectuals” including Per Wirtén, Andreas Miller and Alf Håkan Bengtsson.

Wirtén, Bengtsson and Miller – subsequently pursued relatively prominent careers in journalism. Miller is now the chairman of Ledarna, which is an idiosyncratically Swedish institution: a trade union for managers!

“Miller is now the chairman of Ledarna, which is an idiosyncratically Swedish institution: a trade union for managers!”According to Swedish sources, the members of this group, including Josefsson – were affiliated to the “Social Democrats for Faith and Solidarity”, a branch of the Swedish Social Democratic Party with a distinctly religious tinge of Lutheranism, and more commonly known as “Broderskapsrörelsen” (“Brotherhood Movement”).

Josefsson’s closest “brother” in this group was Per Wirtén.

“Josefsson’s closest “brother” in this group was Per Wirtén.”Wirtén’s journalistic career began as the editor of a pro-Palestinian student newsletter “Palestinian Front”. In the late 1980s, together with Josefsson, he started a radical youth magazine called “800 degrees”, which was published under the sponsorship of the “Brotherhood Movement”. The magazine’s title came from a protest song by the Swedish punk band Ebba Grön.

Later on, one evening in the early 1990s, Wirtén and Josefsson met with Andreas Miller in Stockholm’s famous Café Opera and the trio started talking about setting up a new progressive magazine.

At a second meeting which took place in the Pelikan Restaurant in the Södermalm district of Stockholm, Alf Håkan Bengtsson was also invited to attend.

Café Opera and the Pelikan Restaurant in Stockholm
Café Opera and the Pelikan Restaurant in Stockholm – favourite haunts of Josefsson and his student friends.

These discussions ultimately led to the setting-up of a new magazine containing reports, interviews and essays on politics and culture from a libertarian left-wing perspective.

The magazine first appeared in 1993 under the name “Politikens, kulturens & idéernas arena”. In 2003 the name was shortened to “Arena” and in 2017 the magazine switched to online-only format.

“Arena” is published by Arenagruppen, a non-profit association which describes itself as “the leading progressive platform for public debates in Sweden”. Arenagruppen operates as a non-partisan left-wing think-tank, publisher and interface for various political, civil, academic and trade unionist actors. The CEO of Arenagruppen is one of the founders of the Arena magazine, Alf Håkan Bengtsson.

“The CEO of Arenagruppen is one of the founders of the Arena magazine, Alf Håkan Bengtsson.”According to its website, Arenagruppen aims “to promote a public debate characterized by breadth and diversity”:

“We strive for different voices to be heard. Conversation, dialogue and mutual respect are the basis of a viable democracy. We have a strong belief in the possibilities of democracy. Democracy is a way of making decisions about our common affairs but also an ideal. Hierarchical and authoritarian ideas are in opposition to our view of democracy. Structures and values ​​that hinder the free development of human beings should be criticized.”

Per Wirtén was editor-in-chief of the “Arena” magazine until 2010. Since then he has operated as a freelance journalist and author, amongst other things writing for the Swedish daily newspapers Expressen, Sydsvenskan, and the website DagensArena.

“In 2017 Eva Wirtén was awarded an Advanced Investigator Grant from The European Research Council for the project ‘Patents as Scientific Information, 1895-2020 (PASSIM).”In his personal blog, Wirtén has occasionally given a plug to articles by Carl Josefsson to whom he refers as “my old buddy” (“min gamla kompis”).

For example, in 2014, Wirtén praised a piece by Josefsson which had appeared in the Svenska Dagbladet:

“His article is about the difficult relationship between legal interpretation and democracy. […] Calle [Josefsson] lays it out clearly. The law can not be legitimized by any natural rights but only through democratic discussions and decision-making processes. The rule of law and self-determination are the two fundamental foundations of democracy and cannot be separated.”

In 2015, under the heading “Lawyers seize power” Wirtén plugged another article by Josefsson which had been published in the Svensk Juristtidning.

“We cannot stand idly by in the face of the lawyers’ claims to power. It is time to wake up. We need to learn more about the relationship between democracy and law. […] We can start by reading an article in Svensk Juristtidning (1/2015) in which Carl Josefsson writes both educationally and polemically. Almost 25 years ago, he was one of the initiators of the Arena magazine and is now a member of the Court of Appeal. […] Josefsson refers to the German legal philosopher Jürgen Habermas, who argues that the role of the courts is not to guard the boundaries of politics (the liberal tradition) but to enable democracy by broadening its conditions. […]

Law is thus not above democracy, but should be immersed in the cascades of debate, quarrel and chatter that we perceive as the lifeblood of democracy.”

“They sound like the kind of people who might be interested in the governance of international IP offices.”Per Wirtén’s wife, Eva Hemmungs Wirtén, is Professor of Mediated Culture at Linköping University, Sweden. She describes herself as “an interdisciplinary scholar with a broad set of research interests, ranging from book history to the history of information and patents” and has authored a number of books on intellectual property topics, including a history of intellectual property rights [sic] and regulations entitled “No Trespassing: Authorship, Intellectual Property Rights, and the Boundaries of Globalization” (2004).

“No Trespassing” surveys the landscape of IP law in general, and copyright law in particular, and investigates how IP law has become the handmaiden of a greedy and rapacious transnational capitalism.

Carl Josefsson gets a mention in the preface to “No Trespassing” as one of “those persons who have carefully read and commented on the manuscript in its various stages of completion”.

In 2017 Eva Wirtén was awarded an Advanced Investigator Grant from The European Research Council for the project ‘Patents as Scientific Information, 1895-2020 (PASSIM).

She is a frequent contributor to academic journals and some of her publications can be found on ResearchGate.

In “How Patents Became Documents, or Dreaming of Technoscientific Order” (2019; local copy [PDF]) she makes the following critical observations about the international patent system:

“Indeed, one wonders whether Eva Wirtén has ever broached the topic with her husband’s old buddy, “Calle” Josefsson.”“Perhaps more so than any other intellectual property, patents have come to epitomize an intellectual property regime gone berserk. Given controversies surrounding the relative success or failure of the current intellectual property regime, for many patents now symbolize the dark underbelly of an ongoing and dangerous commodification of knowledge in research and science …”.

In “Out of Sight and Out of Mind” (2020; local copy [PDF]) she presents a critique of “the cultural hegemony of intellectual property”. Referring to the “[t]he hair-raising absurdities of an ever-expanding intellectual property regime … [that] appear to have no boundaries, moral or otherwise” she explains how intellectual property rights [sic] “within the larger context of globalization … produce a very specific, unequal ordering of the global cultural and political economy”.

Eva Wirtén is an executive director of the International Society for the History and Theory of Intellectual Property (ISHTIP). ISHTIP is an academic group which “promotes and supports scholarly investigation of the national histories of patent, copyright, and “related” rights; the diverse “roads not taken” in the evolution of these legal structures; contemporary countertrends; and the laws and norms that have been devised in non European cultures around the world to manage intellectual production and exchange”.

“On the contrary, the only things Josefsson seems to be concerned about these days are production figures and “timeliness”.”According to its website, ISHTIP “works to promote, coordinate, and disseminate critical inquiry into IP”, and its aims are “to re-frame – to broaden and deepen – current IP debate”.

They sound like the kind of people who might be interested in the governance of international IP offices. Indeed, one wonders whether Eva Wirtén has ever broached the topic with her husband’s old buddy, “Calle” Josefsson.

That seems like a rather remote possibility because Josefsson himself seems to have decisively cast off the outer veneer of radicalism and “social democracy” which he cultivated in his student days.

Since he took over the helm at the Boards of Appeal there hasn’t been much sign of “the cascades of debate, quarrel and chatter that we perceive as the lifeblood of democracy”.

“One is left to wonder what his former “brothers” – Per Wirtén, Andreas Miller and Alf Håkan Bengtsson – would make of “Calle” and his abandonment of the libertarian left-wing principles that he once claimed to espouse?”On the contrary, the only things Josefsson seems to be concerned about these days are production figures and “timeliness”.

One is left to wonder what his former “brothers” – Per Wirtén, Andreas Miller and Alf Håkan Bengtsson – would make of “Calle” and his abandonment of the libertarian left-wing principles that he once claimed to espouse?

In the next part we will take a closer look at how “social democracy” has fared at the EPO’s Boards of Appeal since Josefsson took up his position in Haar in March 2017.

The EPO’s War on Justice and Assault on the Law — Part 7: Calle’s Strange Metamorphosis

Posted in Europe, Law, Patents at 11:20 am by Dr. Roy Schestowitz

Previously in this series:

Calle Josefsson
“Calle” Josefsson’s tweeting career came to an abrupt halt in September 2016.

Summary: Sources believe the “legal anarchy” that EPOnia became notorious for, especially when it comes to handling referrals at the EPO‘s BoA, will become a dark legacy — a legacy that would, if he was alive, disappoint even Josefsson’s source of inspiration

As we saw in the last part, during his time as a Swedish judge, Josefsson participated quite enthusiastically in public discussions, including debates about the role of the judiciary in a democratic social order.

Amongst other things, he was fond of sounding the alarm about the dangers of “legal anarchy” in post-communist Eastern European countries such as Hungary and Poland.

“Whatever directions he may have received from his prospective EPOnian overlords, it is clear that “Calle” took a decision that it would be in his own interest to dial down his Habermasian dialectics and critiques of “legal anarchy”.”However, he ceased “tweeting” abruptly in September 2016 and his Twitter account has remained inactive since then.

It might be nothing more than a coincidence, but the termination of his twittering activities occurred around the same time that he was being groomed for his future as “President of the Boards of Appeal” role at the EPO.

It’s not clear whether there was a causal connection between these two events. But it’s quite possible that Josefsson was given to understand by Battistelli and Kongstad that if he had aspirations to joining the EPO’s senior management “mafia” he would have to curb his enthusiasm for open and transparent public debate about the role of the judiciary in a system based on the “rule of law”.

Whatever directions he may have received from his prospective EPOnian overlords, it is clear that “Calle” took a decision that it would be in his own interest to dial down his Habermasian dialectics and critiques of “legal anarchy”.

Since he joined the EPO as “President of the Boards of Appeal”, Josefsson has kept his head down and has studiously avoided getting involved in any “political” discussions about the EPO’s glaring governance deficits.

Jürgen Habermas
What would the philosopher Habermas make of Josefsson’s collusion with the EPO’s “legal anarchy”?

One wonders what his philosophical mentor Jürgen Habermas would make of this strange metamorphosis and how Habermas would judge Josefsson’s silent and opportunistic collusion with the “legal anarchy” that prevails at EPOnia.

“One wonders what his philosophical mentor Jürgen Habermas would make of this strange metamorphosis and how Habermas would judge Josefsson’s silent and opportunistic collusion with the “legal anarchy” that prevails at EPOnia.”It’s hard to believe that, during his student days in Sweden, the youthful “Calle” had something of a reputation as a radical and was associated with a group of libertarian left-wing student “intellectuals” who went on to become prominent figures in Swedish public life.

In the next part we will examine this little-known chapter in his personal biography.

05.14.21

EPO Justice

Posted in Europe, Law, Patents at 4:18 am by Dr. Roy Schestowitz

Bad Pun Judge Judy: Wait at the door; You stepped on the floor? EPC you should ignore

Judge Judy v Lawyer: Why are you here? Are you ready to hear? You smell like a beer; But I'm vaccinated, my dear

Judge Judy: No time for hearings; Just Webcams and readings; Oh, sorry! I fell asleep on my sofa!

Judge Judy Gangsta: Don't you tell anybody!

The Judge: Hearings resume; My guilt you assume; I just see some jerk on Zoom; Can we please talk in a room?

Summary: Justice in Europe’s second-largest institution, where the law itself is a second-class citizen

Wait at the door

You stepped on the floor?
EPC you should ignore

Why are you here?
Are you ready to hear?
You smell like a beer
But I’m vaccinated, my dear

No time for hearings
Just Webcams and readings
Oh, sorry! I fell asleep on my sofa!
Don’t you tell anybody!

Hearings resume
My guilt you assume
I just see some jerk on Zoom
Can we please talk in a room?

05.13.21

The EPO’s War on Justice and Assault on the Law — Part 5: Battistelli’s “Swedish Chef”

Posted in Europe, Law, Patents at 11:46 pm by Dr. Roy Schestowitz

Previously in this series:

The “Swedish Chef” Carl Josefsson
Carl Josefsson – Battistelli‘s Swedish Chef

Summary: The EPO‘s ‘courts’ are controlled by the people whom they’re supposed to judge on; this has been the case for at least half a decade

As we saw in the last part, Battistelli’s “reform” of the Boards of Appeal in 2016 raised a lot of unanswered questions, in particular concerning its effects on the independence of the Boards.

The members of the Boards were upset and protested about their impending deportation to Haar. Here’s a concisely-put reminder from AMBA: [PDF]

AMBA - Resolution on Haar

But there was one lucky beneficiary of this dubious “legal fudge”, Carl Josefsson, who had the honour of being the first appointee to the newly created position of “President of the Boards of Appeal”.

“It is very clear that Josefsson’s appointment at the EPO was vetted by Battistelli and Kongstad and there is every reason to believe that they chose their man with great care.”Josefsson’s appointment was announced by the Administrative Council in December 2016 (warning: epo.org link) and he took up his new job in March 2017.

Before moving to the EPO, Josefsson was a Senior Judge at the Svea Court of Appeal in Stockholm.

He also played a leading role in “Team UPC” as a member of the UPC Advisory Panel between 2013 and 2016. In this capacity he was involved in the preselection and training of UPC judges. (Warning: epo.org link)

From the document at hand: [PDF]

Sweden UPC 2016

It is very clear that Josefsson’s appointment at the EPO was vetted by Battistelli and Kongstad and there is every reason to believe that they chose their man with great care.

“Nothing that has happened at the Boards of Appeal since then would call that assessment into question.”It is worth recalling that Battistelli had ensured that Rule 12a of the EPC (warning: epo.org link) was drafted to give himself a de facto veto over the appointment of the President of the Boards of Appeal:

The President of the Boards of Appeal shall be appointed by the Administrative Council on a joint proposal made by the Committee established under Rule 12c, paragraph 1, and the President of the European Patent Office.

For this reason it is apparent that Josefsson could not have secured the position as President of the Boards of Appeal without Battistelli’s endorsement.

Already back in 2019 it was reported that Josefsson was reckoned by EPO insiders to be a “safe pair of hands” who did his best to please his political masters and someone who could be counted upon to do his best to avoid “upsetting the apple cart”.

Nothing that has happened at the Boards of Appeal since then would call that assessment into question.

As a matter of fact, it is very clear that Josefsson’s performance to date has been very much to the satisfaction of his overlords on the Administrative Council.

“As a matter of fact, it is very clear that Josefsson’s performance to date has been very much to the satisfaction of his overlords on the Administrative Council.”This can be gauged from the fact that his appointment – which was not due to expire at the end of February 2022 – has already been pre-emptively renewed for another five years.

The renewal was announced by the Administrative Council in December 2020. (Warning: epo.org link)

This means that unless something unexpected happens, Josefsson intends to remain at the helm of the Boards of Appeal until at least the end of February 2027.

Since he took up his position at the EPO, Josefsson has given the distinct impression of being a “bought man” who knows what side his bread is buttered on.

However, a number of details which have emerged about his previous life in Sweden suggest that he wasn’t always such a vapid conformist.

In the next part, we will present some interesting revelations about Josefsson’s earlier career before he joined Team Battistelli at the EPO.

Judging the Judges

Posted in Europe, Law, Patents at 12:03 pm by Dr. Roy Schestowitz

Video download link

Summary: Today we shall take a closer look at Carl Josefsson, a person who shall become a figure of interest if he sends EPO courts to the United States in clear violation of the EPC (looking to rubber-stamp an unlawful decision already made before this case even started)

WE will soon publish Part 4 of the series “The EPO’s War on Justice and Assault on the Law”. The President of the Boards of Appeal, Carl Josefsson, will be in focus.

“The main point of this video is to remind readers that judges are just human beings, no matter how much we glorify and groom them to become some sort of glamourised heroes on a pedestal — a sentiment not shared by many. They make mistakes sometimes, they’re not perfectly immune to corrupting forces/influences, and if there’s a longstanding pattern of injustice it’s acceptable to seek an explanation.”The above video explains why I think judges can sometimes be scrutinised, under exceptional circumstances. Cited are examples like Gilstrap and Rader, whom IAM attempted to propel to the top of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in spite of the epic scandals and blunders. SCOTUS kept overturning his decisions (when he was chief judge at the Federal Circuit) and he flagrantly disregarded basic laws/precedents like 35 U.S.C. § 101/Alice.

The main point of this video is to remind readers that judges are just human beings, no matter how much we glorify and groom them to become some sort of glamourised heroes on a pedestal — a sentiment not shared by many. They make mistakes sometimes, they’re not perfectly immune to corrupting forces/influences, and if there’s a longstanding pattern of injustice it’s acceptable to seek an explanation. Not just because your rich sponsors ask you to.

Articles mentioned in the video:

When EU Authorities Tell You to Complain to the EPO Itself About EPO Privacy Violations…

Posted in Europe, Law, Patents at 10:02 am by Dr. Roy Schestowitz

Related: Breaking News: EDPS Admits That It is Powerless to Investigate Claims of GDPR Non-compliance at the EPO

Judge Doom: I will decide on the legality of the illegal thing I authorised
It’s certainly authorised, twice even.

Summary: “Kafkaesque” at the EPO; Kafka could do a whole novel about the flirtations with or affairs of ‘justice’ at the EPO

The Trial
© Foto H.-P.Haack – Antiquariat Dr. Haack Leipzig → Privatbesitz, Public Domain

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