Bonum Certa Men Certa

Links 14/06/2022: GIMP 2.10.32 Released and FakeCoins Crash

  • GNU/Linux

    • Audiocasts/Shows

      • Linux Made SimpleAmarok Linux XFCE 3.4.1

        Today we are looking at Amarok Linux XFCE 3.4.1. It comes with Linux Kernel 5.10, XFCE 4.16, and uses about 600MB to 800MB of ram when idling.

      • VideoAmarok Linux XFCE 3.4.1 Run Through - Invidious

        In this video, we are looking at Amarok Linux XFCE 3.4.1. Enjoy!

      • VideoWhy The Mesa, Wayland & Xorg Gitlab Died For A Day - Invidious

        For a day the Linux desktop effectively halted when the Freedesktop gitlab decided to die for a day due to a problem that anybody out there can face, whether you're running a personal system or a massive server cluster a bit of faulty hardware.

      • VideoMy Frustrations With Linux And Its Instability - Invidious

        One of the criticisms of Linux, especially from Windows and Mac users, is that Linux is unstable. And being strictly a Linux user for the last 15 years, I have to admit that desktop Linux can be unstable. In fact, a recent experience that I had was truly infuriating...

    • Kernel Space

      • LWNLinux 5.18.4
        I'm announcing the release of the 5.18.4 kernel.

        All users of the 5.18 kernel series must upgrade.

        The updated 5.18.y git tree can be found at: git:// linux-5.18.y and can be browsed at the normal git web browser:


        greg k-h
      • LWNLinux 5.17.15
      • LWNLinux 5.15.47
      • LWNLinux 5.10.122
      • LWNLinux 5.4.198
      • LWNLinux 4.19.247
      • LWNLinux 4.14.283
      • LWNLinux 4.9.318
      • Linux Plumbers Conference (LPC)Registration Currently Sold Out, We’re Trying to Add More Places – Linux Plumbers Conference 2022

        Back in 2021 when we were planning this conference, everyone warned us that we’d still be doing social distancing and that in-person conferences were likely not to be as popular as they had been, so we lowered our headcount to fit within a socially distanced venue. Unfortunately the enthusiasm of the plumbers community didn’t follow this conventional wisdom so the available registrations sold out within days of being released. We’re now investigating how we might expand the venue capacity to accommodate some of the demand for in-person registration, so stay tuned for what we find out.

    • Instructionals/Technical

      • Tom's HardwareHow to Use Nohup to Run Linux Scripts Unattended | Tom's Hardware

        If you are building a robot, sensor platform, weather station then you don’t want the code to stop running when you disconnect from the terminal, and nohup is just the thing for you.In this how-to, we will learn how to use nohup via a series of examples

        There are times when you want to run a command, and leave it running even after you close a terminal window / SSH session. The simplest way is using nohup (no hangups) which will run any command or executable script long after we close the terminal.

      • Linux Made SimpleHow to install Intellij Idea 2022 Ultimate on a Chromebook

        Today we are looking at how to install Intellij Idea 2022 Ultimate on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

      • TechRepublicHow to manage SSH keys on Cockpit for remote SSH key authentication

        Cockpit is an outstanding web-based GUI for managing your Linux servers. Most RHEL-based servers ship with Cockpit installed and make it easy to do things like manage services, storage, networking, containers, updates, user accounts, logs, SELinux and more.

        Another less obvious feature found in Cockpit is the ability to manage SSH keys for remote SSH key authentication. Imagine this: You log into Cockpit on your AlmaLinux server, and you want to then use SSH to log in to yet another server with the built-in terminal feature. What do you do?

        If you want to work with SSH key authentication because it’s more secure, you’ll want to make sure the remote server has the public key of the Cockpit server added. You can do this all from the command line, but there’s an easier way – especially if you use multiple SSH keys – built right into Cockpit.

      • ID RootHow To Install WineHQ on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS - idroot

        In this tutorial, we will show you how to install WineHQ on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, Wine (“Wine Is Not an Emulator”) is free and open-source software that provides the ability to run Windows software on non-Windows systems. Instead of simulating internal Windows logic like a virtual machine or emulator, Wine translates Windows API calls into POSIX calls on the fly, eliminating the performance and memory penalties of other methods and allowing you to cleanly integrate Windows applications into your desktop.

        This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the WineHQ on Ubuntu 22.04 (Jammy Jellyfish). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

      • eSecurity PlanetGetting Started With the Metasploit Framework: A Pentesting Tutorial | eSecurityPlanet

        The Metasploit project contains some of the best security tools available, including the open source Metasploit Framework. Both pen testers and hackers use it to find and exploit vulnerabilities as well as to set up reverse shells, develop malicious payloads, or generate reports.

      • How to Install VNC Server Ubuntu 22.04

        Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is a desktop sharing protocol that allows you to control a computer remotely using the VNC client software. In this tutorial, we will show you how to install and configure the VNC Server on the latest Ubuntu Server 22.04. This guide also covers how to securely connect to the VNC Server through SSh tunneling.

      • Make Use Of8 Classic Linux Commands and Their Modern Alternatives

         With the growth of Linux, powerful alternatives to standard Linux commands have been developed by the community. Here are some of them.

        When you're learning Linux, you may begin with the basic commands that have existed since the days of Unix. However, developers created the standard commands long ago, and currently, these commands are simplified for ease of use.

        As an intermediate or expert user, it is good to learn powerful alternatives to these commands and master them. These alternatives to classic commands save up your time and provide detailed results.

    • Games

      • FuturismBest Retro Game Consoles in 2022

        Tapping into nostalgia for gamers of all eras is possible with the influx of retro game consoles. If your formative years were in the late ‘80s to late ‘90s, the mere mention of “Friday nights'' inspires unmatched levels of nostalgia. ABC’s TGIF lineup was pretty solid, Pizza Hut’s Bigfoot pie could feed a family for a weekend, and visiting Blockbuster Video was a rush of excitement. But none of these Friday night experiences were half as good as picking up a controller and sitting in front of a CRT television with friends to play the latest hit video game. Tapping into this time warp is now possible, with some of the best retro game consoles available on the market.

      • 9to5LinuxValve Releases Proton 7.0-3 with Support for 19 Games to Play on Linux, More Improvements

        Arriving one and a half months after Proton 7.0-2, the Proton 7.0-3 release is here to add support for more Windows games that you can now play on your GNU/Linux distribution through Steam Play/Proton.

        These include Age of Chivalry, Beneath a Steel Sky, Chrono Cross: The Radical Dreamer Edition, Cities XXL, Cladun X2, Cursed Armor, Flanarion Tactics, Gary Grigsby’s War in the East, Gary Grigsby’s War in the West, Iragon: Prologue, MechWarrior Online, and many others.

    • Desktop Environments/WMs

      • K Desktop Environment/KDE SC/Qt

        • LiliputingKDE Plasma 5.25 brings new gestures, better support for 2-in-1 tablets, and more customization options

          The latest version of the KDE Plasma desktop environment for Linux and other open source operating system is here and, among other things, KDE Plasma 5.25 brings support for new touchscreen and touchpad gestures, a new way for multitaskers to view all of their apps and desktops at once, and a bunch of new customization options.

        • LinuxiacKDE Plasma 5.25 Comes with Another Dose of Customization Capabilities

          New touchpad gestures, syncing the accent color, and touch mode are some of the new features in the KDE Plasma 5.25 Desktop Environment.

          Regarding the desktop, the KDE Desktop Environment is one of the two hegemons in the Linux world. Adored by some and considered overcomplicated by others, it has a well-deserved top spot in the hearts of aesthetic connoisseurs over the years.

          Furthermore, its strong support over the years proves that KDE Plasma is a desktop environment on which any Linux user can rely.

          KDE Plasma, as we all know, is about the endless possibilities for personalization. And the just-released KDE Plasma 5.25 is no exception. Indeed, none of the fans of this desktop environment will be disappointed with another dose of enhancements and features it brings. So, let’s take a look at them.

  • Distributions and Operating Systems

  • Free, Libre, and Open Source Software

    • IT Pro TodayBeware the 'Secret Agent' Cloud Middleware

      New open source database details the software that cloud service providers typically silently install on enterprises' virtual machines — often unbeknownst to customers.

    • OSI BlogHigher Ed needs to step up to stay relevant as Open Source floods the IT world [Ed: So this is where Patrick Masson moved to after he quit OSI; Danese Cooper Cooper, who worked for famous criminal Bill Gates, is there too]

      Grant money is pouring in to support institutions of higher education that are taking a strong position in the adoption of Open Source technologies. 82% of enterprise IT leaders are choosing to work with Open Source vendors, and higher education is stepping up and following suit. In order to stay competitive, campuses must take a critical look at how they manage IT portfolios and seriously consider a larger commitment to their own Open Source strategy.

    • GNU Projects

      • GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP)GIMP 2.10.32 Released

         GIMP continues strengthening its bases as this new version 2.10.32 is quite heavy on bug fixes and improves our support for many image file formats.

        This news lists the most notable and visible changes. In particular, we do not list here the bug fixes. To get a more complete list of changes, you should refer to the NEWS file or look at the commit history.

      • 9to5LinuxGIMP 2.10.32 Released with Support for 8/16-bit CMYK(A) TIFF Files, BigTIFF

        GIMP 2.10.32 is here almost six months after GIMP 2.10.30 with a bunch of cool changes, starting with support for importing 8-bit and 16-bit CMYK(A) TIFF files, support for importing and exporting BigTIFF files, as well as built-in support for JPEG XL files (without the need of a third-party plugin).

    • Programming/Development

      • Make Use OfThe Ultimate Emacs Guide for Editing Files on Linux

        Emacs is one of the oldest text editors you can find today. It has been in development for over 40 years as of the year 2022.

        Emacs is cross-platform, open-source, and versatile. You can use it for a wide range of things, from editing configuration files to programming and document processing. Understanding how to use this powerful editor can greatly improve your productivity on Linux.

      • Frederic CambusAssembly instructions distribution | Frederic Cambus

        In my article about running FreeBSD on the Vortex86DX CPU, I mentioned using objdump to disassemble kernels in order to check whether they were using CMOV instructions or not.

        One thing leading to another, I thought it would be fun to calculate the distribution of assembly instructions in ELF binaries. It turns out it can be done rather easily with a bit of Shell foo.

        For the purpose of this article, I used SQLite 3.38.5 (2022-05-06) built with GCC 12.1.1 on Fedora 36 using the default optimization level (-O2) as a target binary to test instructions distribution against. It is a self-contained, full-featured SQL database engine as a single binary, making it an excellent choice for our experiment.

      • The 12 Habits of Highly Effective Python Developers ● Python Land Blog

        I’ve worked with many software developers, some of them fresh out of college and others seasoned professionals. This article lists some of the traits these people seem to have in common, and I’m confident that there’s something to learn for everyone in here, no matter your track record!

      • RlangHopf torus, circle by circle

        Remember my first post on the Hopf torus? I constructed it circle by circle. Below are some animations of this construction. I save the image each time a circle is added. The rgl package automatically centers the plot, and this gives a nice effect.

  • Leftovers

    • my interview experience with hashicorp

      I don't get why companies are so apprehensive to provide constructive feedback. Simply "we are looking at other, more qualified applicants" or "you are a react fanboi" would be sufficient. There was no reason provided and they were being a little secretive about it. Maybe it's about liability or they don't want any opportunity for the applicant to be confrontational? It was nice to get a rejection phone call even though an email would be sufficient since it was pretty clear that they wanted to cut off all further communication.

    • Science

      • uni TorontoFramebuffer consoles have been around before on Unix workstations

        The early Unix machines were what we would today call 'servers', and generally used serial terminals as their system console (well, they used serial ttys for pretty much everyone, but one of them was special). But then Unix workstations came along, which is to say small Unix machines with graphical displays. In theory these machines could have been designed to boot with their system console as a serial terminal (and often you could reconfigure them that way), but in practice that would have been rather awkward, so the graphics hardware and the graphical display were used as the system console. Which is to say that these machines had a framebuffer console, much like how modern Linux kernels work on x86 hardware. And just like modern Linux machines, these Unix workstations generally had surprisingly slow text output on their framebuffer consoles.

        (For example, you can watch the somewhat leisurely text output of the kernel boot messages in this video of a Sun 3/60 booting.)

        There generally were three reasons for this. First, these machines were just slow in general (by modern standards). Second, the machines were often using simple unaccelerated graphics to render their console text; using sophisticated code and hardware acceleration was generally something only the display server did (and there wasn't always hardware acceleration). Among other things, this kept the complexity of the kernel framebuffer driver down. And third, they were generally rendering text on the entire screen, often with large fonts. This would be like the difference between a normal 80x24 terminal window with normal sized text and a full screen terminal window with big text, although today's hardware often has fast enough text rendering that you might not notice much speed difference.

      • GizmodoNew Milky Way Visualizations Show the Dance of Millions of Stars in Incredible Detail

        ESA's Gaia detected unusual 'starquakes' during its third survey of the galaxy.

      • FuturismThe Transcripts of an AI That a Google Engineer Claims Is Sentient Are Pretty Wild

        The story drew widespread media attention, stoking the fires of a familiar debate. Are contemporary language models really capable of gaining consciousness — or did Lemoine just see the image of his own humanity reflected back to him?

    • Security

      • LWNThe "Hertzbleed" vulnerability []

        Today's branded, logo-equipped vulnerability is known as Hertzbleed; it affects x86 processors (at least) and can be exploited in some situations to extract cryptographic keys from a remote server.

      • USCERTMicrosoft Releases June 2022 Security Updates [Ed: Microsoft has loads of unpatched and actively-exploited security holes, Microsoft-sponsored media obsesses over "Linux"]

        Microsoft has released updates to address multiple vulnerabilities in Microsoft software. An attacker can exploit some of these vulnerabilities to take control of an affected system.

        CISA encourages users and administrators to review Microsoft’s June 2022 Security Update Summary and Deployment Information and apply the necessary updates.

      • TechRepublicNew botnet and cryptominer Panchan attacking Linux servers [Ed: This is not an issue with Linux itself, but this Microsoft-funded site wants to shift attention away from actively-exploited and unpatched Microsoft flaws; it also spreads FUD about Go for merely being used to develop some malware]

        Panchan is written in the Go programming language and utilizes Go’s concurrency features to maximize its spread and execute payloads.

      • TechRadarThis new Linux rootkit malware is already targeting victims [Ed: Again, this is not an issue with Linux itself; it's some malware that can sometimes be installed on Linux, but that helps distract from deliberate back doors in Windows]
      • Security WeekWindows Updates Patch Actively Exploited 'Follina' Vulnerability [Ed: Microsoft should be banned from technology procurement over this]

        Microsoft has fixed roughly 50 vulnerabilities with its June 2022 Patch Tuesday updates, including the actively exploited flaw known as Follina and CVE-2022-30190.

      • Security WeekAvast: New Linux Rootkit and Backdoor Align Perfectly [Ed: Misportraying and conflating malware that gets installed on Linux with Linux itself]

        Malware hunters at Avast have analyzed a newly discovered rootkit and backdoor that target Linux and appear designed to function in synergy with each other.

      • The Cyber WireStealthy Linux malware. Aoqin Dragon targets Southeast Asia and Australia. Iranian spearphishing campaign. BlackCat RaaS described. [Ed: The issue is the malware, not Linux; Linux can be patched fully, but someone installing malware would still be a problem.]
      • USCERTCISA Adds One Known Exploited Vulnerability to Catalog [Ed: Notice how CISA refrains from naming Windows even though this is 100% about Windows and nothing but Windows; does CISA help Microsoft cover up another security scandal?]

        CISA has added one new vulnerability to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog, based on evidence of active exploitation.

    • Defence/Aggression

      • Modern DiplomacyCrumbling CBM Frameworks and the Risk of Inadvertent Escalation

        In 1962, the world witnessed the most precarious event in ages. The USA and USSR were engaged in a perilous standoff over the deployment of Soviet missiles in Cuba and a small error or miscalculation could have reverted humanity into the Stone Age.

      • HRWRwanda: Jailed Critic Denounces Torture in Prison | Human Rights Watch

        Click to expand Image Aimable Karasira (left) and Dieudonné Niyonsenga (right). ™ Private (Nairobi) – A prominent Rwandan YouTube commentator has accused prison authorities of beating him and other jailed critics, Human Rights Watch said today. In a statement at a court hearing in Kigali on May 30, 2022, Aimable Karasira, held in Nyarugenge prison, also said prison authorities were intercepting and withholding privileged communications from his lawyer.

        Ahead of the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), scheduled to begin on June 20, 2022, in Rwanda, Commonwealth leaders should urgently call for the government to immediately and unconditionally release all those jailed for exercising their right to freedom of expression. Commonwealth leaders should also press the government to open credible investigations into allegations of torture and fair trial rights violations, and to initiate substantive reforms to tackle abusive provisions in Rwanda’s legal framework.

      • France24Ivory Coast's Blé Goudé on his upcoming return home after ICC acquittal

        After being definitively acquitted of crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court last year, Charles Blé Goudé, the former right-hand man of ex-Ivorian president Laurent Gbagbo, is expected to soon return to Ivory Coast after more than a decade in exile. On May 30, Blé Goudé received an Ivorian passport via the current president, Alassane Ouattara. In an interview with FRANCE 24, Blé Goudé discussed his upcoming return home, as well as his political ambitions.

      • New York TimesRussian Control of Luhansk and Donbas Could Hinge on Sievierodonetsk
    • Environment

      • Energy

        • ViceThe Bitcoin Crash Is Taking El Salvador's Big Bet With It

          The ongoing crypto crash has managed to wipe out over 50 percent of the value of El Salvador’s Bitcoin hoard.

          The Nayib Bukele tracker, named after the country's Bitcoin-obsessed president, records each purchase the country announces, its cost basis, total reserves, and average cost basis of those reserves. Bukele has purchased 2,301 Bitcoins at an average cost of $45,908 and a total cost of $105.6 million. Today, with the price of Bitcoin hovering around $22,000, El Salvador’s reserves have shed 51 percent of their value and are worth $51.6 million.

          El Salvador's embrace of Bitcoin has been bombastic, and widely lambasted by critics inside the country and out. Shortly before its most recent purchase on May 9, rating agency Moody’s downgraded the country's debt. Before that, in January, the IMF recommended that El Salvador liquidate its Bitcoin holdings and abandon the cryptocurrency as legal tender, resulting in an angry rebuke from the government: Treasury Minister Alejandro Zelaya saying on local television that "no international organization is going to make us do anything, anything at all.”

        • RE: RE: The useful part of cryprocurrency

          My fault. I should have make it clear in my post. I mean "secure" by cryptographically secure, not "secure" as in "you won't loose money because market or scams" secure. "Not your keys, not your Crypto" would be a good way to put it. Signing Bitcoin transactions using your key is secure because <insert course on cryptography>. Just like you can't sign your emails with RMS' digital signacutre without his actual key. Your Bitcoin won't magically disappear witout you (or be accurate, someone with your private key, which hopefully is only you alone) signing the transaction. In contrast with credit cards, knowing the card number and CVC is enough to initiate a transaction. Or a rogue bank manager can sign you up for a credit card without your actual consent. Breaking ECDSA is much, much harder than faking your (hand) signature.


          I do agree with his other points. It's too volatile to be any good use for transaction. Too inefficent using up power and caused the GPU price hike. Yeiks. Energy consumption can be solved by transition to PoS for forgo the entire blockchain structure. Lock-free decentralized 0-trust consistant avaliable anonymous transaction is really hard. Yet, these are solvable with more engineering (and less hype). I don't think gas fee is much of a problem. For the use cases I presented, overseans transaction. Typically it's around 3% using banks. And more if an intermediary is involved. If I were to buy a $5000 server from Supermicro, the fee lands around $150. But with XMR the worst case is around 0.7USD and average of $0.02 2 weeks ago. ETH is at ~20USD few weeks back. That's a bargain. Furthermore, the transaction fee of XMR is comparable with a credit card for anything > $6.00. And the ~2min transaction time is good enough for online shopping.

        • CBCWhen stocks, houses and crypto fall, where does all that money go? | CBC News

          Seven months ago, there was a celebratory mood in the air for crypto traders as the two best-known cryptocurrencies, bitcoin and ethereum, shot to new highs.

          Advocates said "told you so," as financial journalists reported that the value of the global crypto market had soared to a stunning new record of about $3 trillion US.

          A trillion — a million millions, or a one followed by 12 zeros — is one of those numbers so big it is hard to grasp in comparison to our daily lives. A trillion dollars would buy more than 1.3 million Canadian homes. If you kept it in cash, it would give you $1 million a day in spending money for 3,000 years.

    • Censorship/Free Speech

      • RFAChina sets information blockade after 6.0 magnitude earthquake hits Tibetan county — Radio Free Asia

        The Chinese government is imposing an information lockdown after a series of earthquakes in a Tibetan county in Sichuan province displaced more than 25,000 residents, RFA has learned.

        The initial quake, measuring 6.0 on the Richter scale, hit Barkam (Maerkang in Chinese), a county-level city in the Ngawa (Aba) Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, at 1:28 a.m. June 10, Beijing time, the China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) reported.

        According to a state-run media report, the quake injured at least one person and 1,314 rescuers were dispatched to the area. An estimated 25,790 residents of the area were transferred and resettled.

        “Most of the houses [in affected areas] are destroyed and many have sustained extensive damage,” a source told RFA’s Tibetan Service Friday on condition of anonymity for security reasons. “Many people have been left injured, but I haven’t heard any death reports so far.”

    • Freedom of Information / Freedom of the Press

      • France24Brazilian police deny bodies found in search for UK journalist, indigenous expert

        Brazilian authorities say they have found a backpack and personal effects of a British journalist and an Indigenous expert who disappeared in the Amazon last week, with the Briton’s mother-in-law saying she has lost hope that they will emerge alive.

      • RFAVietnam state media trained to protect government policies — Radio Free Asia

        Reporters and editors employed by state media outlets in Vietnam are being trained to uphold the views of the ruling Communist Party on human rights, freedom of expression and other politically sensitive topics, sources in the country say.

        Vietnam’s government appears especially sensitive to foreign criticism on human rights issues, frequently attacking allegations of abuse or the suppression of free speech as the work of hostile forces, according to rights groups and other activists.

        Trainings are now held each year to ensure that those working in Vietnam’s state-owned media work within limits set by the government and ruling party, Nguyen Ngoc Vinh — former managing editor of the country’s popular Tuoi Tre (Youth) newspaper — told RFA in an interview.

      • ANF NewsANF | 837 journalists and 62 institutions: We stand by our colleagues detained in Amed

        837 journalists and 62 institutions issued a joint statement in solidarity with colleagues detained in Amed.

        The statement said: "We, the undersigned professional press organizations and journalists, condemn the ruthless detention of Kurdish journalists and press workers by police raids on Wednesday, June 8th.

        We invite everyone, especially the opposition, which has claims about law, justice, equality, freedom and democracy, and who intend to prepare for the Turkey of the future, to stand in solidarity with our colleagues in detention and take a stand against the violence of the government."

      • HRWAfghanistan’s Taliban Crack Down on Vloggers | Human Rights Watch

        Click to expand Image Ajmal Haqiqi (center) and two colleagues after their arrest, Kabul, June 7, 2021. Source: General Directorate of Intelligence, Twitter, June 7, 2022 On June 7, Afghan vlogger Ajmal Haqiqi – well known for his YouTube channel and modeling shows – appeared in a very different kind of broadcast. Taliban officials arrested Haqiqi and his three colleagues and released a video showing the men, with bruised faces and clearly under duress, apologizing for encouraging “prostitution” and “insulting verses of the Quran.”

        On May 28, the four had posted a YouTube video in which they recited Quranic verses in Arabic in a comical tone. Within a week, the Taliban’s General Directorate of Intelligence (GDI) had detained them.

    • Civil Rights/Policing

    • Internet Policy/Net Neutrality

      • Daniel MiesslerWhy Everyone Needs a Blog

        In this post I’m going to convince you why everyone needs a blog. Even you.


        People used to be defined by where they work, and now they’re defined by their knowledge, capabilities, and opinions.

        Everyone in the 1950s had a resume; it was unthinkable not to have one. Why is that?

        The reason is that the primary communication of value and worth was from the person to a company you wanted to work at. Your value was what you could provide to a company, not what you could provide to other humans outside your circle. The only people who had ideas worth sharing with the world were authors, and they were considered super-human.

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