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Links 17/3/2022: Cockpit 265 and Igalia's Work on OpenGL and Vulkan in Linux

  • GNU/Linux

    • Desktop/Laptop

      • Make Use OfThe 8 Best Linux Distros for Chromebooks

        Want to use Linux on your Chromebook? Check out these eight distributions that offer better features and enhanced performance than Chrome OS.

        As the name suggests, a Chromebook makes its best-selling point with affordability as an added advantage. Besides, despite the difference between Chromebook and other Windows and Mac-based machines, the default OS is the most distinguishing feature.

        However, limited features, minimal customization, and vulnerability to various attacks make privacy a big concern. Hence, Chromebook users are always looking for alternative operating systems that offer flexibility and customization.

      • Linux Journal6 Best Linux Desktop Environments to Try in 2022

        Are you looking for the best Linux desktop environments for your desktop? Then this article is particularly for you. Want to find the notable mentions, the best features, and what you might be fond of? Get to know about the 6 best Linux desktop environments to try in 2022 from here. So, let’s dive in!

        And with that, we have reached the conclusion. This article walked you through the 6 best Linux desktops for 2022. If you’re looking for an easy-to-customize desktop, choose from Budgie, KDE, and GNOME.

        But do remember that older systems with less than 4GB RAM support are not suitable for GNOME. If a lightweight desktop is your requirement, go with KDE. So, have you decided upon your choice of Linux desktop?

      • India Timeskite: Upgraded Kite Os Suite Released | Thiruvananthapuram News - Times of India

        Chief minister Pinarayi Vijayan has released the upgraded KITE GNU/ Linux operating system (OS) suite – the free and open source software (FOSS) based OS developed by the Kerala Infrastructure and Technology for Education (KITE) for deployment in new laptops in schools.

        This OS suite can be used as a complete computing platform not only by students and teachers in schools, but also in home computers, government offices, DTP centres, software developers, etc.

        The new OS suite has all the important updates till date of the popular Ubuntu OS. It also features a lot of FOSS-based applications which are not part of Ubuntu 20.04repository.

    • Audiocasts/Shows

    • Kernel Space

      • Multi-queue improvements in Linux kernel Ethernet driver mvneta

        In the past months, the Linux kernel driver for the Ethernet MAC found in a number of Marvell SoCs, mvneta, has seen quite a few improvements. Lorenzo Bianconi brought support for XDP operations on non-linear buffers, a follow-up work on the already-great XDP support that offers very nice performances on that controller. Russell King contributed an improved, more generic and easier to maintain phylink support, to deal with the variety of embedded use-cases.

        At that point, it’s getting difficult to squeeze more performances out of this controller. However, we still have some tricks we can use to improve some use-cases so in the past months, we’ve worked on implementing QoS features on mvneta, through the use of mqprio.

    • Applications

      • Linux Links7 Useful Free and Open Source PDF Tools - LinuxLinks

        Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. The format includes a subset of the PostScript page description programming language, a font-embedding system, and a structural storage system.

        Over the years PDF has become an extremely important file format. If you want to create documents that can be viewed under all major operating systems, PDF is the ticket, as it maintains the overall look and feel of documents regardless of what platform they are viewed under.

        This article focuses on useful PDF tools which can help you create PDFs as well as small utilities/libraries that help you work with PDF. It doesn’t seek to overlap with our articles on PDF manipulation tools and PDF viewers as they are covered in separate articles.

        Here’s our verdict captured in a legendary LinuxLinks chart. Only free and open source software is eligible for inclusion.

      • XDACan the Mac Studio run Linux? Yes, but not natively

        Apple’s latest desktop workstation, the Mac Studio, is very tempting. Thanks to the new Apple M1 Ultra processor, the Mac Studio could well the most powerful Mac yet, even competing with the “cheese grater” Mac Pro. Out of the box, the Mac Studio will run macOS Monterey, but what if you want to leverage that power in a different OS? If you’re wondering whether you can run Linux on the Mac Studio, we have both good and bad news for you.

        The bad news is that it’s still not possible to run Linux – or Windows, for that matter – natively on macOS. While Intel-based models made it easier to install different operating systems, Macs running Apple Silicon are more locked down. The silver lining here is that you can run Linux on the Mac Studio, but it’ll have to be through a virtual machine.

    • Instructionals/Technical

      • Ubuntu HandbookAutomate Mouse Clicks Easily via XClicker in Ubuntu Linux | UbuntuHandbook

        Playing video games or doing other tasks that need repeated mouse clicks in Linux? XClicker may help.

        XClicker is a free open-source tool, allows to make ‘left.’, ‘right‘ or ‘middle‘ click (single or double) automatically in any area in your screen.

        It provides an easy to use interface, allows to set the click interval in Milliseconds and/or seconds, choose click type (e.g., left, right, double click). By enabling ‘Custom Location’ then clicking on ‘Get’ button, user may then do single click anywhere in screen to set the x, y coordinate.

      • VideoHow to install Audacity on Zorin OS 16 - Invidious
      • ID RootHow To Install Timeshift on Manjaro 21 - idroot

        In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Timeshift on Manjaro 21. For those of you who didn’t know, Timeshift is a powerful open-source tool that can help you protect your data. Timeshift protects your system by taking incremental snapshots of the file system at regular intervals. These snapshots can be restored at a later date to undo all changes to the system

        This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Timeshift open-source backup and restore on a Manjaro 21.

      • FAQForgeHow to Restore a Large MariaDB Backup from the Terminal

        If you have a backup of a larger database and restoring it via PhpMyAdmin does not work, this can be achieved via the following command on the shell. To see the status of the restoring backup, we install the program pv. It allows us to see visual progress of the process, after starting the restore of the file.

      • LateWebA simple way to list Symbolic Links in Linux

        A symbolic link also known as a soft link is a kind of a pointer that points to the location of a folder or a file on your system. Some of these links are created by default on your system, whereas you yourself can also create symbolic links manually for any of your desired files or folders. This article will explain to you the different methods through which you can list down all symbolic links on Linux, I have used Linux Mint 20 for this guide, but the same steps will work on any Linux distribution.

      • LateWebA simple way to install Adobe acrobat reader in Ubuntu

        Adobe pdf is a family of application software and Web services developed by Adobe Inc. to view, create, manipulate, print and manage files in Portable Document Format (PDF).

        The main function of Adobe Acrobat is creating, viewing, and editing PDF documents. It can import popular document and image formats and save them as PDF. It is also possible to import a scanner‘s output, a website, or the contents of the Windows clipboard.

        Because of the nature of the PDF, however, once a PDF document is created, its natural organization and flow cannot be meaningfully modified. In other words, Adobe Acrobat is able to modify the contents of paragraphs and images, but doing so does not repaginate the whole document to accommodate for a longer or shorter document. Acrobat can crop PDF pages, change their order, manipulate hyperlinks, digitally sign a PDF file, add comments, redact certain parts of the PDF file, and ensure its adherence to such standards as PDF/A.

      • LateWebA easy way to install PSensors in Ubuntu

        Psensor is a very useful utility for Linux-based systems that shows the values of the various sensors that are mounted on your mainboard. It is capable of displaying the temperature of the various components of your CPU, the rotation speed of your fans as well as your CPU usage. Apart from its command-line interface, it also offers you a very nice and user-friendly graphical interface that you can easily opt to use for extracting your desired information. This article shows you how to install and use Psensor on Ubuntu 20.04

      • LateWebA Easy Way To Install and Use SSHGuard on Ubuntu

        SSHGuard is an open-source daemon that is used to enhance the security of ssh as well as other network protocols. Moreover, it is used to prevent brute force attacks. It will continuously monitor and keep the track record of the system logs which helps in tracking the continuous login attempts or malicious activity. Once it detects such activity then it will immediately block the IP using firewall backends such as pf, iptables, and ipfw. Then it will unblock the IP after a set interval of time. Several log formats such as raw log file, Syslog-ng, and Syslog are supported by SSHGuard as well as provide extra layer protection to several services postfix, Sendmail, vsftpd, etc. including ssh.

      • Linux Made SimpleHow to install VRoid Studio 1.4.2 on a Chromebook

        Today we are looking at how to install VRoid Studio 1.4.2 on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

        This tutorial will only work on Chromebooks with an Intel or AMD CPU (with Linux Apps Support) and not those with an ARM64 architecture CPU.

    • Games

      • GamingOnLinuxStellaris: Overlord expansion announced enabling you to expand your power | GamingOnLinux

        Oh goodie, more ways to completely mess with the whole galaxy. Stellaris: Overlord has been announced as the next full proper expansion for the popular grand-strategy game from Paradox.

        Overlord will grant you access to new features centred around more intricate management of intergalactic empires, from specialized vassals to powerful new megastructures. Sounds like it gives you more tools to become some sort of evil empire, although not just that as you will be able to help out other systems you control too. With their changes it also means if you become a vassal it's not a delayed game over, with new options to play through.

      • GamingOnLinuxHalftime Heroes is basically a 3D Vampire Survivors | GamingOnLinux

        Oh no, not again, not another game to hook me in and steal away my free time. Halftime Heroes is out in Early Access. Note: personal purchase.

        Here's the thing about it, Halftime Heroes is clearly a shameless attempt to jump on the hype-train created by the very popular Vampire Survivors. However, Vampire Survivors was not the first wave-based survival game and certainly won't be the last but it has helped to push their popularity up with a very clear design — and that is exactly what Halftime Heroes has copied and put into 3D.

      • Boatswain, your Stream Deck app for Linux – Georges Stavracas

        That’s right: rich and engaging Stream Deck integration on Linux.

        Boatswain is a new app I’ve been working on for the past month that allows controlling Stream Deck devices. It can assign icons and actions to buttons, and perform them. Boatswain is on track for it’s first stable release soon.

    • Desktop Environments/WMs

      • 9to5LinuxLMDE (Linux Mint Debian Edition) 5 “Elsie” Is Now Available for Download

        As I reported during the beta phase, LMDE (Linux Mint Debian Edition) 5 is based on the Debian GNU/Linux 11 “Bullseye” operating system series. More precisely, it is using the packages included in the Debian GNU/Linux 11.2 point release that arrived last year in December.

        This means that Linux Mint Debian Edition 5 is powered by the long-term supported Linux 5.10 LTS kernel series, which will be supported until October 2023. On top of that, LMDE 5 “Elsie” comes with all the applications and packages included in the Linux Mint 20.3 “Una” release.

    • Distributions

      • IBM/Red Hat/Fedora

        • Venture BeatReport: 95% of IT leaders feel open source tools are key to strong infrastructure | VentureBeat

          A new survey by Red Hat found that cloud computing and always-on services built using the open source development model and open source code are increasingly crucial to nearly every industry. A full 95% of IT leaders say they are key to their enterprise infrastructure.

          What was surprising was that 82% of IT leaders said they’d be more likely to select a vendor who contributes to the open source community, which was driven, in part, by a desire to sustain healthy open source communities. That, too, bodes well for the continued growth of open source code as an engine of innovation.


          The survey included interviews with 1,296 IT leaders worldwide. To ensure credibility, the IT leaders were unaware that Red Hat was sponsoring the survey.

        • Red Hat OfficialComing to the stage at Red Hat Summit 2022

          Red Hat Summit 2022 is less than two months away and we can’t wait for you to see the powerful and inspiring stories that will be showcased! We’ll be bringing together speakers from around the world and across sectors to share how they are building better solutions for their customers and for themselves using open source solutions.

          Join us May 10 and 11 as thousands of customers, partners, and technology industry leaders from around the world come together for two days of innovation, education and collaboration. (Psst, registration is open!)

          During Red Hat Summit 2022 you'll enjoy talks from visionary technology industry speakers, inspirational stories from our customers and partners, informative Ask the Experts sessions, and more!

          To whet your appetite here’s a sneak peek of what some of our Red Hat executives will be talking about during the keynote sessions. They will be joined by customers, partners and other industry leaders to share how open source technology is making a difference.

        • Red Hat OfficialPodman 4.0's new network stack: What you need to know

          Of the new features in Podman v4.0, one of the most important is a new network stack, written from scratch in Rust to support Podman. The new stack is composed of two tools, the Netavark network setup tool and the Aardvark DNS server. Together, they offer several advantages over the existing Container Networking Interface (CNI) stack, including:

        • Cockpit 265

          Cockpit is the modern Linux admin interface. We release regularly.

      • Canonical/Ubuntu Family

        • OMG UbuntuYour First Look at Ubuntu 22.04’s Default Wallpaper

          An updated background image is rolling out to users of the the daily builds as a software update, but you don’t need to be running it to take a look — you can see it in this post.

          Per tradition, each new release of Ubuntu comes with a custom designed desktop background that features the codename mascot, in this case that’s a Jellyfish, in the middle.

        • UbuntuHow we implemented an interactive Live Demo Box

          The Vanilla squad recently spent a two week sprint prototyping an interactive live demo box. We were tasked with coming up with a proof of concept, to enable demoing of each variant of our examples dynamically. A few guest developers were able to joined us, which meant four of us were able to dedicate a two week iteration to the project.

    • Devices/Embedded

    • Free, Libre, and Open Source Software

      • Peter Czanik: The syslog-ng insider 2022-03: syslog-ng 4; MQTT source; Zinc; Elastic Cloud; 3.36;

        This is the 99th issue of syslog-ng Insider, a monthly newsletter that brings you syslog-ng-related news.

      • Events

        • Gunnar Wolf: Speaking about the OpenPGP WoT on LibrePlanet this Saturday [Ed: People who worked hard to remove RMS from the FSF speak at LibrePlanet?]

          I much enjoyed attending this conference in person in March 2018. This year I submitted a talk again, and it got accepted — of course, given the conference is still 100% online, I doubt I will be able to go 100% conference-mode (I hope to catch a couple of other talks, but… well, we are all eager to go back to how things were before 2020!)

      • Web Browsers

        • Mozilla

          • Ubuntu PitChrome vs Firefox: Which One is the Best Browser?

            Is Mozilla Firefox better than Google Chrome? – The most common question we often get from many people. Basically, these two browsers are, without any other competitor, the most-used browsers. So, the competition between them is quite strong. However, both Firefox and Chrome are developed based on open-source web browser engines. Still, there are many differences among them. And today, we will discuss the complete fact of Chrome vs Firefox.


            In the battle of Chrome vs Firefox, we are not going to discuss just the similarities and dissimilarities of these two competitive browsers. Indeed, we aim to reach a conclusion where you can choose the best browser for you. So, we will discuss some major facts of these two browsers and tend to find out the winner in the particular fact. Before going into the details, you can have a look at our previous article on the Brave vs. Chrome battle.

          • MozillaMozilla and Open Web Docs working together on MDN

            For both MDN and Open Web Docs (OWD), transparency is paramount to our missions. With the upcoming launch of MDN Plus, we believe it’s a good time to talk about how our two organizations work together and if there is a financial relationship between us. Here is an overview of how our missions overlap, how they differ, and how a premium subscription service fits all this.

          • MozillaPerformance Sheriff Newsletter (February 2022) – Mozilla Performance

            In February there were 122 alerts generated, resulting in 19 regression bugs being filed on average 4.3 days after the regressing change landed.

            Welcome to the February 2022 edition of the performance sheriffing newsletter. Here you’ll find the usual summary of our sheriffing efficiency metrics, followed by a review of the year. If you’re interested (and if you have access) you can view the full dashboard.

      • Programming/Development

        • The Register UKAn open-source COBOL contender emerges

          The newly announced gcobol compiler is a fresh front end for GCC, and builds native binary executables.

          There are already other FOSS and freeware compilers for COBOL out there, but few are fully open source. Notably, there's GnuCOBOL, which evolved out of OpenCOBOL. The OpenCOBOL FAQ is worth a read, and notes that: "OpenCOBOL was initially developed by Keisuke Nishida from experience working on TinyCOBOL originally developed by Rildo Pragana."

          There's nothing wrong with GnuCOBOL: it's mature, in active development, and supports various COBOL standards and dialects – but as the announcement for gcobol says: "Our project should not be confused with GnuCOBOL. That project is a Cobol translator: it compiles Cobol to C, and invokes gcc to produce executable code."

          You can still get COBOL-IT for free. This French project developed an open-source compiler suite until it was acquired by "the guardians of business COBOL" – or alternatively, a retirement home for ageing software businesses – aka Micro Focus – in 2017.

        • QtDesktop and Mobile are in the DNA of Qt

          Qt has a long and exciting history. Born in Norway, raised in Finland by two different parents, and finally grew up to be a global citizen. Our growth journey includes ups and downs, which have made us pivot and refocus along the way. In the beginning, the focus was on the desktop while Qt 2 brought Embedded into the limelight. Qt 4 was the first actual cross-platform framework, and Qt 5 initially focused on Mobile. After listing to Helsinki Stock markets, we have been growing independently and towards being truly the cross-platform framework that our founders envisioned from the start.

  • Leftovers

    • FreeStyle Libre 3 miniaturizes real-time glucose monitoring [Ed: Rarely can you find the terms "Libre" and "Free" abused to badly.]

      I’ve worn the FreeStyle Libre 2 flash-glucose monitor (FGM) on my upper arm for the last three years. As a diabetic, I need to pay close attention to my glucose levels, and the Libre 2 was a revolution compared to finger-prick blood tests every couple of hours. The new Libre 3 system is a highly-anticipated update that massively improves on the Libre 2.

    • Hardware

      • CubicleNateMagnetic USB Cables | Prolong Device Ports – CubicleNate's Techpad

        USB-C, although very capable is quite fragile, especially on phones or tablets that children use. I have started using these to extend the life of the cheap tablets by preventing damage to the ports from mishandling the charging cables. Although this solution isn’t perfect, it is far better than the USB-C and micro-USB cables that are bundled with devices. An added benefit is that it is one magnetic cable that works with USB-C and micro-USB devices.

        I don’t know how long these particular magnetic USB cables will continue to be sold but there but some form of them will likely continue. They aren’t good for everything but they are good for enough for many devices and will help to prolong their usage.

    • Integrity/Availability

      • Proprietary

        • Pseudo-Open Source

          • Openwashing

            • Linux Foundation's Site/BlogLF Energy: Solving the Problems of the Modern Electric Grid Through Shared Investment [Ed: Microsoft's Jason Perlow keeps pushing "Linux" Foundation further and further away from Linux]

              The energy industry sits at the epicenter of change because energy makes everything else run. And inside the energy industry is the need for a rapid transition to electrification and our vast power grids. Like it or not, utilities face existential decisions on transforming themselves while delivering ever more power to more people without making energy unaffordable or unavailable.

            • Court affirms it's false advertising to claim software is Open Source when it’s not | Open Source Initiative [Ed: This is the same OSI that promotes Microsoft proprietary software]

              Stop saying Open Source when it's not. The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit recently affirmed a lower court decision concluding what we’ve always known: that it’s false advertising to claim that software is “open source” when it’s not licensed under an open source license.

              You can read the decision here. The facts, as described by the trial court, are that Neo4j, Inc. had been through several releases of its software and several license choices along the way, ending with what the court called “the Sweden Software License,” because the licensor was a Swedish subsidiary of the plaintiff.

            • LWNOSI: Court affirms it's false advertising to claim software is Open Source when it’s not

              The Open Source Initiative reports on a ruling in the US Court of Appeals reaffirming the meaning of "open source" in a software license.

            • Copyleft Won't Solve All Problems, Just Some of Them [Ed: SFC sounds like it is joining anti-Free software trolls now]

              We are passionate about and dedicated to the cause of software freeedom and rights because proprietary software harmfully takes control of and agency in software away from users. In 2014, we started talking about FOSS as fundamental to “ethical software” (and, more broadly “ethical technology”) — which contrasts FOSS with the unethical behavior that Big Tech carries out with proprietary software. Some FOSS critics (circa 2018) coined the phrase “ethical source” — which outlined a new approach to these issues — based on the assumption that software freedom activists were inherently complicit in the bad behavior of Big Tech and other bad actors since the inception of FOSS. These folks argue that copyleft — the only form of software licensing that makes any effort to place ethical and moral requirements on FOSS redistributors/reusers — has fundamentally ignored the larger problems of society such as human rights abuses and unbridled capitalism. They propose new copyleft-like licenses, which, rather than focusing on the requirement of disclosure of source code, they instead use the mechanisms of copyleft to mandate behaviors in areas of ethics generally unrelated to software. For example, the Hippocratic License molds a copyleft clause into a generalized mechanism for imposing a more comprehensive moral code on software redistributors/reusers. In essence, they argue that copylefted software (such as software under the GPL) is unethical software. This criticism of copyleft reached crescendo in the last three weeks as pundits began to criticize FOSS licenses for failing to prohibit Putin from potentially using FOSS in his Ukrainian invasion or other bad acts.

              We have in the past avoided a comprehensive written response to the so-called “ethical source” arguments — lest our response create acromony with an adjacent community of activists who mean well and with whom we share some goals, but with whose strategies (and conclusions about our behavior and motivations) we disagree. Nevertheless, the recent events have shown that a single, comprehensive response would help clarify our position on a matter of active, heated public debate and fully answer these ongoing criticism of FOSS and our software freedom principles.

        • Security

          • CISATreck TCP/IP Stack (Update H)
          • New Linux backdoor that propagates via Log4j vulnerability easy to exploit in the cloud

            In a blog post, 360Netlab researchers say that the network traffic generated by this sample triggered a DNS Tunnel alert in their system. The researchers investigated further and found a new botnet family which they named B1txor20 based on it using the file name “b1t,” the XOR algorithm, and the RC4 algorithm key length of 20 bytes.

          • Make Use OfThe 12 Safest Free Software Download Sites for Linux [Ed: Terrible advice. GitHub is run by NSA/Microsoft (malware) and Softpedia is an anti-Linux site; the safer route is, use the repos of the distro]

            Linux is an open-source operating system with a broader contributor community than other OSes. However, downloading software for your Linux system can sometimes be risky due to security reasons.

            The internet is flooded with spyware, especially on websites offering free apps, where some contributors try to exploit users through malicious files. That is why it is always recommended to use authentic websites to get an app.

          • CISAStrengthening Cybersecurity of SATCOM Network Providers and Customers | CISA

            CISA and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) are aware of possible threats to U.S. and international satellite communications (SATCOM) networks. Successful intrusions into SATCOM networks could create additional risk for SATCOM network customer environments.

            In response, CISA and FBI have published joint Cybersecurity Advisory (CSA) Strengthening Cybersecurity of SATCOM Network Providers and Customers, which provides mitigations and resources to strengthen SATCOM provider and customer cybersecurity.

    • Censorship/Free Speech

      • TrustFacebook's 'double standard' on hate speech against Russians

        Facebook's decision to allow hate speech against Russians due to the war in Ukraine breaks its own rules on incitement, and shows a "double standard" that could hurt users caught in other conflicts, digital rights experts and activists said.

        Facebook owner Meta Platforms will temporarily allow Facebook and Instagram users in some countries to call for violence against Russians and Russian soldiers in the context of the Ukraine invasion, Reuters reported last week.

        It will also allow praise for a right-wing battalion "strictly in the context of defending Ukraine", in a decision that experts say demonstrates the platform's bias.

      • Business InsiderRussia’s internet censorship is forcing citizens to turn to the dark web and VPNs for news and social media

        In just under a month, the internet in Russia has become nearly unrecognizable after hundreds of news outlets and social media platforms have vanished from the web, while global tech companies like Netflix and Apple have restricted their services.

        The Kremlin earlier this month banned Twitter and Facebook from the Russian internet, and on Monday it blocked access to Instagram. Russian Instagram influencers posted tearful goodbye videos, urging followers to move to platforms they could still access.

        Russia has rapidly and drastically entered into a type of digital isolation, cutting off millions of citizens from access to accurate information and online spaces to express opinions. As Moscow seeks to stifle dissent and control the narrative over its invasion of Ukraine, digital and human rights groups are worried about the future of Russia's internet.

        In addition to the Kremlin blocking access to numerous online platforms and news sites, several companies and outlets have been forced to suspend their operations after the country passed a law that makes it a serious crime to publish information the government deems as "fake."

    • Internet Policy/Net Neutrality

    • Monopolies

      • Copyrights

        • Public Domain ReviewPhilipp Hainhofer’s *Große Stammbuch* (1596–1633) – The Public Domain Review

          Hainhofer's 227-page volume collects the signatures of over seventy-five of Europe’s most notable seventeenth-century nobles. A richly illustrated album amicorum — a kind of friendship book for preserving the autographs of acquaintances — the Große Stammbuch was renowned in Hainhofer’s lifetime, becoming one of Augsburg’s must-see artworks. This vellum Kunstkammer brings together the royal, semi-divine hands of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II [17], King of Denmark Christian IV [20] and Cosimo II de’ Medici [30] with exquisite drawings, a painting on silk, and embroidered panels made by dozens of artists, including Georg Behem, Tobias Bernhard, Joseph Heintz, Johann Mathias Kager, Lucas Kilian, Jacopo Ligozzi, and Anton Mozart.

          The cosmopolitan connoisseur Hainhofer rarely traveled without his Stammbuch, which he showed off to a wide network of aristocrats to win new contributions. A single entry was often the result of months spent negotiating with a signatory and artists. Though occasionally a royal would commission her own page, Hainhofer usually had the leaves painted to his taste, which the duchess or king would then sign and otherwise personalize (with mottos or brief inscriptions). Expenses — paid by the contributor — ranged from ten to fifty ducats. By 1610, Hainhofer was regularly receiving invitations for personal audiences with potential autographers. And, in September 1612, when Hainhofer visited François de Lorraine [103] to solicit his hand, the Count attempted to keep the book by force, only surrendering it after the diplomatic intervention of the Elector of Cologne.

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