EditorsAbout the SiteComes vs. MicrosoftUsing This Web SiteSite ArchivesCredibility IndexOOXMLOpenDocumentPatentsNovellNews DigestSite NewsRSS


Interview with Richard Stallman, Founding Father of Free Software

Posted in Free/Libre Software, FSF, GNU/Linux, GPL, Interview at 6:59 pm by Dr. Roy Schestowitz

GNU @ 25 Special

Richard Stallman

I was entirely away on that special GNU day, so here is my interview which is being posted on this belated anniversary.

For information about the anniversary, see the message from FSF Europe or Linux Magazine.

The GNU Project celebrated its 25th birthday on September 27, 2008. With its GCC compiler and bash shell, GNU was ever at the forefront of today’s Linux distribution. To kick off the celebration, British humorist Stephen Fry appears in a video in defense of free software.

Now, here is the older article:

When Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project back in 1983, he planted the seeds of what rapidly evolved and recently became a revolution that transforms entire nations. The Free Software Foundation, which was also created by Richard Stallman and now sponsors the GNU Project, has probably become a center of attention to those who are affected by the most widely-used software license, the GNU GPL.

We discussed some of the more recent developments with Richard Stallman, whose passion for freedom in computing remains intense. The following Q & A explores the goals of free software, progress that has been made, and ways to maintain or instill freedom in software that we use.

Q: In the past few years we have come to find a number of countries which decided to embrace Free software as a matter of policy.
Many people attribute such milestones to your travels around the globe.

Richard Matthew Stallman: They may be focusing too much on me personally and giving insufficient credit to the rest of the movement. In Ecuador, I personally won the support of President Correa, but that’s the only such case I remember. In other countries, other people did most the persuasive work. For instance, the activists of FSF India persuaded the government of Kerala to begin the migration to free software; I could not have done that.

Q: How do you balance the need to preach to groups and individuals,
including world leaders, and other important activities such as writing
the GNU General Public License version 3 (GPLv3)?

RMS: It is only occasionally that I have a large project such as GPLv3.
Most of my work consists trying to spread awareness of the ideas of
free software, and I do it mostly by answering emails such as yours.

The basic idea of the Free Software Movement is that the social
conditions for use of software are vitally important — more important
even than the software’s technical characteristics. A free program
respects your freedom and the social solidarity of your community
with four essential freedoms:

0. The freedom to run the program as you wish.

1. The freedom to study the program’s source code and then change it
so the program does what you wish.

2. The freedom to distribute exact copies to others, when you wish.

3. The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to
others, when you wish.

Everyone knows how to exercise freedoms 0 and 2. If you don’t know
how to program, then you don’t know how to exercise freedoms 1 and 3;
but when programmers do so, you can install their modified versions if
you wish, so you get the benefits. You can also ask or pay
programmers to make the changes you would like to use.

Q: Because software does not have a long history, your sources
of inspiration appear not to include people whose life legacy is
associated with software. Would you say that the nature of their impact
has motivated you to address ethical and moral issues that are not
necessarily related to software?

RMS: I was taught ideals of human rights growing up in the United States in
the 60s, and then was inspired by the Civil Rights Movement and the
Antiwar Movement. So I have cared about issues of freedom since
before I began programming. Later I started working at the MIT
Artificial Intelligence Lab and experienced the free software way of
life. Then I took an unusual step: I connected the free software
community’s way of life with the ideals of freedom I had learned.
The result was the Free Software Movement, a movement to give computer
users the freedom to cooperate and to control their own computing.

“I, as a software developer, had a responsibility to fight to end unethical practices in software development. ”

However, my focus on this particular issue of freedom doesn’t mean I’ve lost interest in others freedom issues. It’s simply that this issue dropped in my lap: I, as a software developer, had a responsibility to fight to end unethical practices in software development. If I did not do so, I would be a victim of them, and very likely at the same time a perpetrator.

In the past decade, I’ve tried to use the limited fame I’ve gained
from the GNU system and the free software movement as a platform to
take action on some other human rights and environmental issues, in
stallman.org. I’m not one of the leaders on those issues but I’m glad
I can help.

Q: Some of the more ubiquitous GNU/Linux distributions are ones
which incorporate proprietary drivers and other proprietary
software. When and where (in the system) is it acceptable to make
short-term compromises in order to create a userbase large enough to
make Free software compelling for the entire industry to support? Is a
so-called “critical mass” needed at all?

RMS: The central idea of the Free Software Movement is that you deserve the
four freedoms, and that taking them away from you is wrong. If we
were to grant legitimacy to certain non-free software merely because
it is convenient, that would contract the central idea. It would be
hypocritical, and it would defeat the whole point. You cannot advance
the cause of freedom by legitimizing the denial of freedom.

The people that put non-free software into GNU/Linux distributions do
so precisely because they are not concerned with users’ freedom. They
are not supporters of the Free Software Movement, and they usually
don’t speak about “free software” at all. Instead they talk about
“open source”, a term coined in 1998 to duck the ethical issues of
freedom and social solidarity and focus only on practical convenience.
See http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html for
more explanation.

Q: There are ongoing efforts and even complete projects that
mimic Microsoft technologies and bring their functionality to GNU/Linux.
How would you say one should handle the need to interact with peers who
rely on Microsoft technologies while at the same time maintaining one’s

RMS: I am all in favor of implementing in free software the languages, file
formats and protocols popularized by non-free software, when we can do
so. However, in many cases these formats and protocols are secret,
which means we must do difficult reverse engineering, or patented,
which means that implementing them is prohibited. These legal
obstacles to the development of free software are among the biggest
threats we face.

Q: Recently, with various software patent deals, Microsoft has
attempted to marginalize GNU/Linux by adding price and liability to
certain distributions of it. What do you think would be the effect of
embracing such distributions?

RMS: A meaningful discussion of software patents has to start by explaining
what software patents are, and what they do.

A patent is an artificial government-imposed monopoly on implementing
a certain method or technique. If the method or technique can be
implemented by software, so that the patent prohibits the distribution
and use of certain programs, we call it a software patent.

A large program implements thousands of methods and techniques
together. Each one of them is an idea that might be patented, and
thus represents a possible lawsuit against the program’s developers
and its users. Thus, software patents make software development a
dangerous activity. They are an absurd system and ought to be
abolished entirely.

Free software is vulnerable to software patents, just like proprietary
software and custom software (most of the software industry develops
custom software).

I intend to do everything possible to stop Microsoft (or anyone) from
converting free software into proprietary software through the use of
software patents. Microsoft’s deal with Novell tried to do that,
and we designed version 3 of the GNU GPL to thwart that scheme.

Q: Microsoft encourages developers to build Web sites that
incorporate Silverlight. For GNU/Linux to be able view Silverlight
objects, Moonlight, which is built on top of Mono, needs to be
downloaded from Novell’s Web site. Would you advise GNU/Linux users to
install Moonlight and accept such changes in the World Wide Web?

RMS: Moonlight is free software, so I don’t see anything bad about
installing Moonlight as such. It seems that the reason it needs to be
downloaded from Novell’s web site is that it isn’t ready to be
included in any GNU/Linux distros. However, I don’t know what
Moonlight actually does.

What I can say in general is that we should continue to demand that
web sites use standard (and unpatented) formats and protocols, and put
pressure on those that don’t.

Q: What about Adobe Flash and its equivalent viewers, such as gnash, which is Free software?

RMS: Flash illustrates the problems that arise when web sites use nonstandard
proprietary formats. I am glad that Gnash, our free Flash player is
making progress, but we had to wait years for this.

People who don’t value their freedom are likely to lose it. This is
just as true in computing as in other areas of life, and Flash is an
example. Flash is inherently a problem because it requires a non-free
plug-in. But how did the problem grow to a significant size? This
happened because many web users installed the Flash plug-in without
first checking whether it was free software. Their foolish disregard
for their own freedom made them vulnerable.

The development of Gnash means we may be able to put an end to this
particular outbreak of non-freedom. But if people don’t learn to stop
installing non-free plug-ins, the web will be vulnerable to other
outbreaks in the future. It is a lot less work to avoid these
problems than to fix them. We need to teach people to refuse to
install non-free plug-ins; we need to teach people to care more about
their long-term interest of freedom than their immediate desire to
view a particular site.

Q: Research shows that the GPLv3 is gaining acceptance. In the mailing lists of the Linux kernel, a hypothetical scenario was described where Linus Torvalds et al might consider upgrading their kernel’s license to the GPLv3. This scenario involved Sun’s OpenSolaris (project ‘Indiana’) and its choice of a license. What would you say is the greatest advantage for a kernel — any kernel for that matter — in adopting the GPLv3?

RMS: Kernels (and other programs) don’t really matter — people do. So the
issue here is how moving Linux to GPLv3 would affect the users of
Linux, including the users of the combined GNU/Linux system.

The most relevant aspect of GPL version 3 is the prohibition on
tivoization. Tivoization is the practice of building machines that
come with free software preinstalled, and that are designed to shut
down if you install a modified version of the free software. In
effect, tivoization turns freedom 1 (the freedom to modify the program
to make it do what you wish) into a theoretical fiction.

As long as Linux continues to be distributed under GPL version 2,
manufacturers will be allowed to tivoize it and thus stop users from
changing it and controlling their own computing. This is why Linux
needs to move to GPLv3.

Q: Simon Phipps (of Sun Microsystems) has spoken about the GPLv3 on numerous occasions and he even inquired to see what Bob Sutor, Vice President of Open Source and Standards at IBM, thought about it. If Sun decided to embrace the GPLv3 for its software, including OpenSolaris, would you be willing to endorse OpenSolaris?

RMS: OpenSolaris is already free software, and I can endorse it as such.
If Sun releases it under GPLv3, that will be even better; however,
when choosing between free programs, the main factor is practical.

Q: Linus Torvalds once referred to you as “the great
philosopher” and he also argued that we should think of him as the
engineer. He is clearly very focused on what he does so well. Do you
believe that there are dangers that he is not aware of?

RMS: I am sure he is aware of the dangers. The problem is that there are some
he doesn’t care about. For instance, he seems not to care about the danger
to your freedom posed by tivoization.

Q: If you were allowed to have only one piece of software,
what would it be, assuming that underlying components like an operating
system were already provided?

RMS: There’s a confusion in the question, because all the programs I use
are part of the GNU/Linux operating system. Even the games I
sometimes play are included in the gNewSense distribution which I use.

But if the question is which single user-interactive program is most
important to me, that is GNU Emacs. I spend most of my day using
Emacs to edit files, to read mail, to send mail, to compile, to search
files, and many other things. Of course, GNU Emacs is included in
gNewSense, and in most of the GNU/Linux distributions. I developed
GNU Emacs initially in 1984-5, specifically for the GNU system.

Originally published in Datamation in 2007 and reached the front page of Digg

Share this post: These icons link to social bookmarking sites where readers can share and discover new web pages.
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Reddit
  • co.mments
  • DZone
  • email
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • NewsVine
  • Print
  • Technorati
  • TwitThis
  • Facebook

If you liked this post, consider subscribing to the RSS feed or join us now at the IRC channels.

Pages that cross-reference this one


  1. Dan O'Brian said,

    October 7, 2008 at 9:55 am


    RMS: Moonlight is free software, so I don’t see anything bad about
    installing Moonlight as such.

    I found that hilarious.

    Must have been a big slap in the face, huh Roy? ;-)

  2. Ramon Thomas said,

    October 18, 2008 at 3:37 pm


    Thank you very much for this excellent interview because I never bothered with Stallman until I began reading Vandana Shiva and John Pilger.

What Else is New

  1. Research Into Who's Putting DRM Inside Linux

    Back doors may be hard to detect (requires understanding a lot of underlying code), but how about malicious 'features' or antifeatures that are put in the kernel to serve Hollywood at the expense of the kernel's users?

  2. "Dia da Liberdade" in Portugal -- Wilted Carnations in EPOnia

    "Reliable sources report that the discontent continues to simmer among the EPOnian peasantry and that the steam is slowly but inexorably building up inside the pressure cooker," tells us a guest writer

  3. The Quality of Patents is Connected to the Quality of Life of Patent Examiners

    EPO staff is not happy (a new President has not changed things) and the problems associated with low quality of patents become more visible in courtrooms

  4. American Patent Courts Keep Narrowing Patent Scope, No Matter What Few Politicians Are Doing on Behalf of Litigation Firms and Patent Trolls

    Acts of desperation in the patent microcosm of the United States, where judges now overwhelmingly reject software patents at all levels (tribunals, lower courts, higher courts)

  5. Links 25/4/2019: Rancher Labs Releases Slim OS, OpenBSD 6.5 is Ready

    Links for the day

  6. Links 24/4/2019: Chrome 74, QEMU 4.0 Released

    Links for the day

  7. Supreme Court of the UK, Which Habitually Throws Out European Patents, May Overturn Troublesome Unwired Planet v Huawei Decision

    A lot of European Patents are facing growing scrutiny from courts (Team UPC, including Bristows, publicly complains about it this month) and "greenwashing" of the Office won't be enough to paint/frame these patents as "ethical"

  8. German Federal Patent Court Curbs the Patent Maximalism of the EPO, Which Promotes Patents on Nature and/or Maths Every Single Day

    European courts are restraining the EPO, which has been trying to bypass or replace such courts (with the UPC); it certainly seems as though European Patents rapidly lose their legitimacy or much-needed presumption of validity

  9. Any 'Linux' Foundation Needs to Be Managed by Geeks, Not Politicians and PR People

    Linux bureaucracy has put profits way ahead of technical merits and this poses a growing threat or constitutes risk to the direction of the project, not to mention its ownership

  10. Links 23/4/2019: Kodi 'Leia' 18.2 and DeX Everywhere

    Links for the day

  11. Code of Coercion

    Entryism is visible for all to see, but pointing it out is becoming a risky gambit because of the "be nice!" (or "be polite!") crowd, which shields the perpetrators of a slow and gradual corporate takeover

  12. António Campinos Would Not Refer to the EPO's Enlarged Board of Appeal If He Did Not Control the Outcomes

    António Campinos and his ilk aren’t interested in patent quality because his former ‘boss’, who publicly denied there were issues and vainly rejected patent quality concerns as illegitimate, is now controlled by him (reversal of roles) and many new appointees at the top are "yes men" (or women) of Campinos, former colleagues whom he bossed at EUIPO (as expected)

  13. Links 22/4/2019: Linux 5.1 RC6, New Release of Netrunner and End of Scientific Linux

    Links for the day

  14. USPTO and EPO Both Slammed for Abandoning Patent Quality and Violating the Law/Caselaw in Order to Grant Illegitimate Patents on Life/Nature and Mathematics

    Mr. Iancu, the ‘American Battistelli’ (appointed owing to nepotism), mirrors the ‘Battistelli operandi’, which boils down to treating judges like they’re stooges and justices like an ignorable nuisance — all this in the name of litigation profits, which necessitate constant wars over illegitimate patents (it is expensive to prove their illegitimacy)

  15. IRC Proceedings: January 27th, 2019 – March 24th, 2019

    Many IRC logs

  16. IRC Proceedings: December 2nd, 2018 – January 26th, 2019

    Many IRC logs

  17. Links 21/4/2019: SuperTuxKart's 1.0 Release, Sam Hartman Is Debian’s Newest Project Leader (DPL)

    Links for the day

  18. The EPO's Use of Phrases Like “High-Quality Patent Services” Means They Know High-Quality European Patents Are 'Bygones'

    The EPO does a really poor job hiding the fact that its last remaining objective is to grant as many European Patents as possible (and as fast as possible), conveniently conflating quality with pace

  19. A Reader's Suggestion: Directions for Techrights

    Guest post by figosdev

  20. Links 20/4/2019: Weblate 3.6 and Pop!_OS 19.04

    Links for the day

  21. The Likes of Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys (CIPA), Team Campinos and Team UPC Don't Represent Europe But Hurt Europe

    The abject disinterest in patent quality and patent validity (as judged by courts) threatens Europe but not to the detriment of those who are in the 'business' of suing and printing lots of worthless patents

  22. The Linux Foundation Needs to Change Course Before GNU/Linux (as a Free Operating System) is Dead

    The issues associated with the Linux Foundation are not entirely new; but Linux now incorporates so many restrictions and contains so many binary blobs that one begins to wonder what "Linux" even means

  23. Largest Patent Offices Try to Leave Courts in a State of Disarray to Enable the Granting of Fake Patents in the US and Europe

    Like a monarchy that effectively runs all branches of government the management of the EPO is trying to work around the judiciary; the same is increasingly happening (or at least attempted) in the United States

  24. Links 19/4/2019: PyPy 7.1.1, LabPlot 2.6, Kipi Plugins 5.9.1 Released

    Links for the day

  25. Links 18/4/2019: Ubuntu and Derivatives Have Releases, digiKam 6.1.0, OpenSSH 8.0 and LibreOffice 6.2.3

    Links for the day

  26. Freedom is Not a Business and Those Who Make 'Business' by Giving it Away Deserve Naming

    Free software is being parceled and sold to private monopolisers; those who facilitate the process enrich themselves and pose a growing threat to freedom in general — a subject we intend to tackle in the near future

  27. Concluding the Linux Foundation (LF) “Putting the CON in Conference!” (Part 3)

    Conferences constructed or put together based on payments rather than merit pose a risk to the freedom of free software; we conclude our series about events set up by the largest of culprits, which profits from this erosion of freedom

  28. “Mention the War” (of Microsoft Against GNU/Linux)

    The GNU/Linux desktop (or laptops) seems to be languishing or deteriorating, making way for proprietary takeover in the form of Vista 10 and Chrome OS and “web apps” (surveillance); nobody seems too bothered — certainly not the Linux Foundation — by the fact that GNU/Linux itself is being relegated or demoted to a mere “app” on these surveillance platforms (WSL, Croûton and so on)

  29. The European Patent Office Does Not Care About the Law, Today's Management Constantly Attempts to Bypass the Law

    Many EPs (European Patents) are actually "IPs" (invalid patents); the EPO doesn't seem to care and it is again paying for corrupt scholars to toe the party line

  30. The US Supreme Court (SCOTUS) Once Again Pours Cold Water on Patent Maximalists

    Any hopes of a rebound or turnaround have just been shattered because a bizarre attack on the appeal process (misusing tribal immunity) fell on deaf ears and software patents definitely don't interest the highest court, which already deemed them invalid half a decade ago


RSS 64x64RSS Feed: subscribe to the RSS feed for regular updates

Home iconSite Wiki: You can improve this site by helping the extension of the site's content

Home iconSite Home: Background about the site and some key features in the front page

Chat iconIRC Channel: Come and chat with us in real time


Recent Posts