EditorsAbout the SiteComes vs. MicrosoftUsing This Web SiteSite ArchivesCredibility IndexOOXMLOpenDocumentPatentsNovellNews DigestSite NewsRSS

10.01.08

Interview with Richard Stallman, Founding Father of Free Software

Posted in Free/Libre Software, FSF, GNU/Linux, GPL, Interview at 6:59 pm by Dr. Roy Schestowitz

GNU @ 25 Special

Richard Stallman

I was entirely away on that special GNU day, so here is my interview which is being posted on this belated anniversary.

For information about the anniversary, see the message from FSF Europe or Linux Magazine.

The GNU Project celebrated its 25th birthday on September 27, 2008. With its GCC compiler and bash shell, GNU was ever at the forefront of today’s Linux distribution. To kick off the celebration, British humorist Stephen Fry appears in a video in defense of free software.

Now, here is the older article:

When Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project back in 1983, he planted the seeds of what rapidly evolved and recently became a revolution that transforms entire nations. The Free Software Foundation, which was also created by Richard Stallman and now sponsors the GNU Project, has probably become a center of attention to those who are affected by the most widely-used software license, the GNU GPL.

We discussed some of the more recent developments with Richard Stallman, whose passion for freedom in computing remains intense. The following Q & A explores the goals of free software, progress that has been made, and ways to maintain or instill freedom in software that we use.

Q: In the past few years we have come to find a number of countries which decided to embrace Free software as a matter of policy.
Many people attribute such milestones to your travels around the globe.

Richard Matthew Stallman: They may be focusing too much on me personally and giving insufficient credit to the rest of the movement. In Ecuador, I personally won the support of President Correa, but that’s the only such case I remember. In other countries, other people did most the persuasive work. For instance, the activists of FSF India persuaded the government of Kerala to begin the migration to free software; I could not have done that.

Q: How do you balance the need to preach to groups and individuals,
including world leaders, and other important activities such as writing
the GNU General Public License version 3 (GPLv3)?

RMS: It is only occasionally that I have a large project such as GPLv3.
Most of my work consists trying to spread awareness of the ideas of
free software, and I do it mostly by answering emails such as yours.

The basic idea of the Free Software Movement is that the social
conditions for use of software are vitally important — more important
even than the software’s technical characteristics. A free program
respects your freedom and the social solidarity of your community
with four essential freedoms:

0. The freedom to run the program as you wish.

1. The freedom to study the program’s source code and then change it
so the program does what you wish.

2. The freedom to distribute exact copies to others, when you wish.

3. The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to
others, when you wish.

Everyone knows how to exercise freedoms 0 and 2. If you don’t know
how to program, then you don’t know how to exercise freedoms 1 and 3;
but when programmers do so, you can install their modified versions if
you wish, so you get the benefits. You can also ask or pay
programmers to make the changes you would like to use.

Q: Because software does not have a long history, your sources
of inspiration appear not to include people whose life legacy is
associated with software. Would you say that the nature of their impact
has motivated you to address ethical and moral issues that are not
necessarily related to software?

RMS: I was taught ideals of human rights growing up in the United States in
the 60s, and then was inspired by the Civil Rights Movement and the
Antiwar Movement. So I have cared about issues of freedom since
before I began programming. Later I started working at the MIT
Artificial Intelligence Lab and experienced the free software way of
life. Then I took an unusual step: I connected the free software
community’s way of life with the ideals of freedom I had learned.
The result was the Free Software Movement, a movement to give computer
users the freedom to cooperate and to control their own computing.

“I, as a software developer, had a responsibility to fight to end unethical practices in software development. ”

However, my focus on this particular issue of freedom doesn’t mean I’ve lost interest in others freedom issues. It’s simply that this issue dropped in my lap: I, as a software developer, had a responsibility to fight to end unethical practices in software development. If I did not do so, I would be a victim of them, and very likely at the same time a perpetrator.

In the past decade, I’ve tried to use the limited fame I’ve gained
from the GNU system and the free software movement as a platform to
take action on some other human rights and environmental issues, in
stallman.org. I’m not one of the leaders on those issues but I’m glad
I can help.

Q: Some of the more ubiquitous GNU/Linux distributions are ones
which incorporate proprietary drivers and other proprietary
software. When and where (in the system) is it acceptable to make
short-term compromises in order to create a userbase large enough to
make Free software compelling for the entire industry to support? Is a
so-called “critical mass” needed at all?

RMS: The central idea of the Free Software Movement is that you deserve the
four freedoms, and that taking them away from you is wrong. If we
were to grant legitimacy to certain non-free software merely because
it is convenient, that would contract the central idea. It would be
hypocritical, and it would defeat the whole point. You cannot advance
the cause of freedom by legitimizing the denial of freedom.

The people that put non-free software into GNU/Linux distributions do
so precisely because they are not concerned with users’ freedom. They
are not supporters of the Free Software Movement, and they usually
don’t speak about “free software” at all. Instead they talk about
“open source”, a term coined in 1998 to duck the ethical issues of
freedom and social solidarity and focus only on practical convenience.
See http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html for
more explanation.

Q: There are ongoing efforts and even complete projects that
mimic Microsoft technologies and bring their functionality to GNU/Linux.
How would you say one should handle the need to interact with peers who
rely on Microsoft technologies while at the same time maintaining one’s
freedom?

RMS: I am all in favor of implementing in free software the languages, file
formats and protocols popularized by non-free software, when we can do
so. However, in many cases these formats and protocols are secret,
which means we must do difficult reverse engineering, or patented,
which means that implementing them is prohibited. These legal
obstacles to the development of free software are among the biggest
threats we face.

Q: Recently, with various software patent deals, Microsoft has
attempted to marginalize GNU/Linux by adding price and liability to
certain distributions of it. What do you think would be the effect of
embracing such distributions?

RMS: A meaningful discussion of software patents has to start by explaining
what software patents are, and what they do.

A patent is an artificial government-imposed monopoly on implementing
a certain method or technique. If the method or technique can be
implemented by software, so that the patent prohibits the distribution
and use of certain programs, we call it a software patent.

A large program implements thousands of methods and techniques
together. Each one of them is an idea that might be patented, and
thus represents a possible lawsuit against the program’s developers
and its users. Thus, software patents make software development a
dangerous activity. They are an absurd system and ought to be
abolished entirely.

Free software is vulnerable to software patents, just like proprietary
software and custom software (most of the software industry develops
custom software).

I intend to do everything possible to stop Microsoft (or anyone) from
converting free software into proprietary software through the use of
software patents. Microsoft’s deal with Novell tried to do that,
and we designed version 3 of the GNU GPL to thwart that scheme.

Q: Microsoft encourages developers to build Web sites that
incorporate Silverlight. For GNU/Linux to be able view Silverlight
objects, Moonlight, which is built on top of Mono, needs to be
downloaded from Novell’s Web site. Would you advise GNU/Linux users to
install Moonlight and accept such changes in the World Wide Web?

RMS: Moonlight is free software, so I don’t see anything bad about
installing Moonlight as such. It seems that the reason it needs to be
downloaded from Novell’s web site is that it isn’t ready to be
included in any GNU/Linux distros. However, I don’t know what
Moonlight actually does.

What I can say in general is that we should continue to demand that
web sites use standard (and unpatented) formats and protocols, and put
pressure on those that don’t.

Q: What about Adobe Flash and its equivalent viewers, such as gnash, which is Free software?

RMS: Flash illustrates the problems that arise when web sites use nonstandard
proprietary formats. I am glad that Gnash, our free Flash player is
making progress, but we had to wait years for this.

People who don’t value their freedom are likely to lose it. This is
just as true in computing as in other areas of life, and Flash is an
example. Flash is inherently a problem because it requires a non-free
plug-in. But how did the problem grow to a significant size? This
happened because many web users installed the Flash plug-in without
first checking whether it was free software. Their foolish disregard
for their own freedom made them vulnerable.

The development of Gnash means we may be able to put an end to this
particular outbreak of non-freedom. But if people don’t learn to stop
installing non-free plug-ins, the web will be vulnerable to other
outbreaks in the future. It is a lot less work to avoid these
problems than to fix them. We need to teach people to refuse to
install non-free plug-ins; we need to teach people to care more about
their long-term interest of freedom than their immediate desire to
view a particular site.

Q: Research shows that the GPLv3 is gaining acceptance. In the mailing lists of the Linux kernel, a hypothetical scenario was described where Linus Torvalds et al might consider upgrading their kernel’s license to the GPLv3. This scenario involved Sun’s OpenSolaris (project ‘Indiana’) and its choice of a license. What would you say is the greatest advantage for a kernel — any kernel for that matter — in adopting the GPLv3?

RMS: Kernels (and other programs) don’t really matter — people do. So the
issue here is how moving Linux to GPLv3 would affect the users of
Linux, including the users of the combined GNU/Linux system.

The most relevant aspect of GPL version 3 is the prohibition on
tivoization. Tivoization is the practice of building machines that
come with free software preinstalled, and that are designed to shut
down if you install a modified version of the free software. In
effect, tivoization turns freedom 1 (the freedom to modify the program
to make it do what you wish) into a theoretical fiction.

As long as Linux continues to be distributed under GPL version 2,
manufacturers will be allowed to tivoize it and thus stop users from
changing it and controlling their own computing. This is why Linux
needs to move to GPLv3.

Q: Simon Phipps (of Sun Microsystems) has spoken about the GPLv3 on numerous occasions and he even inquired to see what Bob Sutor, Vice President of Open Source and Standards at IBM, thought about it. If Sun decided to embrace the GPLv3 for its software, including OpenSolaris, would you be willing to endorse OpenSolaris?

RMS: OpenSolaris is already free software, and I can endorse it as such.
If Sun releases it under GPLv3, that will be even better; however,
when choosing between free programs, the main factor is practical.

Q: Linus Torvalds once referred to you as “the great
philosopher” and he also argued that we should think of him as the
engineer. He is clearly very focused on what he does so well. Do you
believe that there are dangers that he is not aware of?

RMS: I am sure he is aware of the dangers. The problem is that there are some
he doesn’t care about. For instance, he seems not to care about the danger
to your freedom posed by tivoization.

Q: If you were allowed to have only one piece of software,
what would it be, assuming that underlying components like an operating
system were already provided?

RMS: There’s a confusion in the question, because all the programs I use
are part of the GNU/Linux operating system. Even the games I
sometimes play are included in the gNewSense distribution which I use.

But if the question is which single user-interactive program is most
important to me, that is GNU Emacs. I spend most of my day using
Emacs to edit files, to read mail, to send mail, to compile, to search
files, and many other things. Of course, GNU Emacs is included in
gNewSense, and in most of the GNU/Linux distributions. I developed
GNU Emacs initially in 1984-5, specifically for the GNU system.

Originally published in Datamation in 2007 and reached the front page of Digg

Share this post: These icons link to social bookmarking sites where readers can share and discover new web pages.
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Reddit
  • co.mments
  • DZone
  • email
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • NewsVine
  • Print
  • Technorati
  • TwitThis
  • Facebook

If you liked this post, consider subscribing to the RSS feed or join us now at the IRC channels.

Pages that cross-reference this one

2 Comments

  1. Dan O'Brian said,

    October 7, 2008 at 9:55 am

    Gravatar

    RMS: Moonlight is free software, so I don’t see anything bad about
    installing Moonlight as such.

    I found that hilarious.

    Must have been a big slap in the face, huh Roy? ;-)

  2. Ramon Thomas said,

    October 18, 2008 at 3:37 pm

    Gravatar

    Thank you very much for this excellent interview because I never bothered with Stallman until I began reading Vandana Shiva and John Pilger.

What Else is New


  1. Links 1/7/2015: OpenDaylight Lithium, OpenMandriva Lx 2014.2

    Links for the day



  2. Munich Press, Münchner Merkur, Slams the Munich-based EPO

    Pressure on Benoît Battistelli to leave (or be fired) grows as the cronies whom he filled his office with have become a huge public embarrassment to the decades-old European Patent Office



  3. The Shameless Campaign to Paint/Portray Free Software as Inherently Insecure, Using Brands, Logos, and Excessive, Selective Press Coverage

    Some more FUD from firms such as Sonatype, which hope to make money by making people scared of Free/libre software



  4. National Insecurity and Blackmail, Courtesy of Microsoft

    British members of parliament (MPs) outsourced their communication to the number one PRISM company and they are paying the price for it; The US Navy's systems continue to be unbelievably insecure (Windows XP), despite access to the world's biggest nuclear arsenal



  5. Microsoft Keeps Shrinking

    As the era of shrink-wrapped software comes to an end so does Microsoft, whose effort to become a 'cloud' company with online operations has been miserable at best



  6. They 'R' Coming: More Microsoft Money for the Linux Foundation

    The problem with having Microsoft in a Linux Foundation initiative, the R Consortium



  7. Speculations About the EPO's Possible Role in DDOS Attacks

    Readers' views on who might be behind the attacks on this site amid confirmation that it's on the 'targets' list of the EPO



  8. Links 30/6/2015: Linux Mint 17.2, OpenMandriva

    Links for the day



  9. Techrights Confirmed as a Target of EPO Surveillance, With Help From Control Risks Group (CRG)

    Unveiling the cloak of secrecy from long-term surveillance by the European Patent Office (EPO) and a London-based mercenary it hired, bypassing the law



  10. Google's Fight to Keep APIs Free is Lost, Let's Hope Google Continues Fighting

    SCOTUS refuses to rule that APIs cannot be considered copyright-'protected', despite common sense and despite Java (which the case is about) being Free/libre software



  11. Patent Trolls in the Post-Alice World

    A round-up of news about patent trolls in the United States, some of whom are are doing well and some of them not as well



  12. DDOS Attacks Against Techrights

    Information about some of the most recent DDOS attacks against this Web site and the steps to be taken next



  13. The Patent System Not What it Used to be, Large Corporations and Patent Lawyers the Principal Beneficiaries

    A look at some recent patent stories and what can be deduced from them, based on statistics and trends



  14. After Intervention by the Council of Europe Comes a Detailed Summary of the Situation in the European Patent Office (EPO)





  15. IRC Proceedings: May 31st - June 27th, 2015

    Many IRC logs



  16. Links 28/6/2015: Manjaro Linux Cinnamon 0.8.13, VectorLinux 7.1

    Links for the day



  17. Williamson v. Citrix Online (at CAFC) Reinforces Alice v. CLS Bank (at SCOTUS) in Crushing Software Patents

    More patent news from the United States, again serving to indicate that software patents over there are getting weak (harder to defend in court or acquire from the patent office)



  18. Proskauer Rose LLP is Cherry-Picking Cases to Make Software Patents Seem Eligible Despite Alice v. CLS Bank

    Naming and shaming those who are trying to reshape the consensus despite a rather consistent pattern of software patents being rejected



  19. IAM Biased: How IAM 'Magazine' Glorifies Patent Stockpiling

    A look at the bias of one of the most overzealous sites for and by patent lawyers



  20. PATENT Act No Longer in the News... and That's Just Fine

    Putting the PATENT Act aside for the time being, for it has little or no impact on the really problematic patents



  21. The Latest Lies From Microsoft's PR Apparatus/Public Face, Mr. Nadella

    Having spread the outrageous lie that “Microsoft loves Linux” (whilst obviously attacking it in many ways), Microsoft's CEO (essentially Bill Gates' right-hand man) says Microsoft is “one of the biggest contributors to Linux kernel” (because of proprietary software it tries to contaminate it with while violating the terms of the GPL)



  22. Microsoft Jack (Schofield) Promotes Microsoft's Proprietary Lock-in and Calls People Who Recommend Free/Libre Software 'Trolls'

    Jack Schofield, writing for a Bill Gates-funded paper despite claiming to have retired, promotes Microsoft Office and insults all those readers who do not agree with him



  23. The Council of Europe Slams the EPO as Political Pressure Grows for EPO Management to Obey the Law

    Battistelli et al. come under yet more fire as politicians -- many of whom from Battistelli's home country -- become better informed of the EPO's management fiasco, abuses, and scandals



  24. Operating Systems Usage Based on Technical Site Statistics

    ome numbers to show what goes on in sites that do not share information about their visitors (unlike Windows-centric sites which target non-technical audiences)



  25. Links 27/6/2015: Wine 1.7.46, SparkyLinux 4.0

    Links for the day



  26. Proprietary Software on Top of Proprietary Software (AV on Windows) Only an Illusion of Security

    Remarks on the recent revelations about code and communication interceptions targeting insecurity firms and Microsoft's claim that 'transparency' alone would be enough to assure security



  27. The EPO's Circus of Nepotism, Corporatism and Gross Abuse is Promoting the Unitary Patent

    The shameful management of the EPO, which Benoît Battistelli constructed based on his nefarious self-serving agenda, keeps pushing forth in a direction that greatly harms European citizens while mistreating the EPO's technical staff (scientists and examiners)



  28. Links 26/6/2015: Ardour 4.1, GNOME 3.17.3 Released

    Links for the day



  29. An Estimated 1,000 EPO Staff in Munich Demonstrated Against EPO Management Yesterday Afternoon

    Earliest coverage of yesterday's protest against EPO corruption and abuses



  30. Microsoft Windows So Insecure That Even Fonts Are Remotely Exploitable

    Windows userbase is once again under serious threat and high risk because something as simple as fonts (rendering of text/pixels on the screen) isn't done securely in Windows


CoPilotCo

RSS 64x64RSS Feed: subscribe to the RSS feed for regular updates

Home iconSite Wiki: You can improve this site by helping the extension of the site's content

Home iconSite Home: Background about the site and some key features in the front page

Chat iconIRC Channel: Come and chat with us in real time

CoPilotCo

Recent Posts