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Links 28/12/2021: New antiX Kernels, Self-Hosted 'Home Assistant'

  • GNU/Linux

    • Audiocasts/Shows

    • Kernel Space

      • Kernel prepatch 5.16-rc7

        The 5.16-rc7 kernel prepatch is out for testing. "Obviously the holidays are a big reason it's all small, so it's not like this is a sign of us having found all bugs, and we'll keep at this for at least two more weeks".

      • Latest antiX kernels

        Latest antiX kernels should now be in the repos. All users are strongly advised to upgrade (via synaptic, cli-aptiX or package-installer).

      • Apple Broadcom Wi-Fi Chips Now Supported in Linux on T2 and M1 Macs

        Hector Martin, the guy behind the Linux port for Silicon Macs, announced on Twitter over the weekend that has added support for Apple Broadcom Wi-Fi chips used in T2 and M1 Macs.

    • Applications

      • My 40 most favorite applications for Linux in 2021

        And so we reached the end of my best apps list and preferred app list for the year 2021. A list that is of course personal to me and can look different for everyone else. But by sharing this kind of information and the reasoning behind my choices, I hope I can help some of you start using applications that you may not have known or considered using. Next to creating my own, I also like to read these kinds of lists from others, because it gives me new ideas and keeps the drive to keep trying new things and investigating new things, alive. If you want to share your list, please feel free via my contact page.

        Linux and everything around it is a fantastic hobby for me and I notice that others get excited when I talk to them about the possibilities of Linux. Only if we share our enthusiasm with friends, colleagues, etc, is it possible to turn what I believe to be the wrong image of Linux in the right direction, namely a productive, simple, beautiful and user-friendly platform, as the old image of too technical, too complex and not user-friendly has long been gone.

        To end this article, I wish you fun trying out some of the applications from this list and I hope to talk to you again soon via a new article. I wish you a good end of 2021 and much love and health to your friends and family.

    • Instructionals/Technical

      • How to Install MariaDB 10.7 on openSUSE Leap 15

        MariaDB is one of the most popular open-source databases next to its originator MySQL. The original creators of MySQL developed MariaDB in response to fears that MySQL would suddenly become a paid service due to Oracle acquiring it in 2010. With its history of doing similar tactics, the developers behind MariaDB have promised to keep it open source and free from such fears as what has happened to MySQL.

        MariaDB has become just as popular as MySQL with developers, with advanced clustering with Galera Cluster 4, faster cache/indexes, storage engines, and features/extensions that you won’t find in MySQL.

        In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install MariaDB 10.7 on openSUSE Leap 15.

      • How to Set Up and Configure OpenVPN Server and Client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. - Unixcop the Unix / Linux the admins deams

        So, in this guide you will learn how to Set Up and Configure OpenVPN Server and Client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.

        Open source OpenVPN uses VPN technologies to secure and encrypt data sent over the internet. Its custom VPN protocol uses SSL/TLS for key exchange and released under the GNU GPL license.

      • How To Install Zoom Client on Fedora 35 - idroot

        In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Zoom Client on Fedora 35. For those of you who didn’t know, Zoom application is one of the most popular applications these days. The Zoom cloud meetings application provides simplified video conferencing with real-time messaging and content sharing over the internet. It provides free video call, chat, and remote desktop sharing services but with time and participant limitations. The users with paid subscriptions can host a meeting of up to 1000 people with no time restriction. You can easily download Zoom on your PC to start video conferencing with your colleagues and friends around the world.

        This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the Zoom Client on a Fedora 35.

      • How to Create Librem File Backups – Purism

        Backing up and restoring your Librem devices can all be done with the same backups application. It’s always secure to keep a recent backup in case you lose or damage your device. To get started, you’ll need your device (of course!) and an external hard drive or a remote Nextcloud supporting WebDAV.

      • How to install FL Studio 20 on a Chromebook with Crossover 21 - Updated Tutorial

        Today we are looking at how to install FL Studio 20 on a Chromebook with Crossover 21. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

      • How to upgrade to Krita 5.0 on Linux

        Krita 5.0 is out for Linux users, and it is packed with new and exciting features. If you’ve been looking to upgrade to 5.0, this guide will help! Follow along as we show you how you can upgrade to Krita 5.0 on Linux!

      • How to upload photos to Flickr from the Linux desktop

        Krita 5.0 is out for Linux users, and it is packed with new and exciting features. If you've been looking to upgrade to 5.0, this guide will help! Follow

      • Install SQLite on Debian 11 / Ubuntu 20.04 - Unixcop the Unix / Linux the admins deams

        Hello, friends. Although the database industry is dominated on a large scale by solutions such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQL Server or Oracle, there are also alternatives for different projects. One of these solutions is SQLite. So, in this post, you will learn how to install SQLite on Debian / Ubuntu and take the first steps with this program.

      • How to Install Fedora Workstation 35 from USB

        Fedora is one of the most stable and bleeding edge Linux distributions. It’s great for software development, web development, multimedia, office works, and many more.

        Fedora Workstation 35 is the latest version of Fedora Linux distribution. Fedora Workstation 35 features the latest version of the GNOME Desktop Environment – GNOME 41. It also has lots of updated software packages.

        In this article, I am going to show you how to create a Fedora Workstation 35 bootable USB thumb drive and install Fedora Workstation 35 on your computer from the USB thumb drive. So, let’s get started.

      • How to install Gnome 41 in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS using PPA - Linux Shout

        While doing this tutorial, Gnome 41 was not still available for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal using the official APT repository. However, we can install Gnome on Ubuntu 20.04 Focal fossa using an unofficial PPA. And here we let you know how to do that?

        Similar to KDE, Gnome has existed for over two decades and has reinvented itself several times during this time. The previous major version of Gnome, 40th, also brought significant visual changes compared to the previous version.

        The Gnome project has released version 41 of its Linux / Unix desktop. In addition to a significantly improved settings dialog, it offers an improved calendar application, “Connections” for remote connections to other computers, and improvements to the Nautilus file manager. On top of that, the developers promise more oomph through various performance improvements.

      • How to Install Mattermost on Debian 11 | RoseHosting

        Mattermost is a self-hosted and open-source online chat service designed to be used as an internal chat platform for companies and organizations. It is one of the main alternatives to the Slack Chat and Microsoft Teams platforms.

      • How To Eliminate All Screen Tearing On Linux - Invidious

        Screen Tearing on linux can be increidbly annoying but it doesn't have to be there, in fact there's a way to just turn it off and no longer have to deal with it.

      • Using two-factor authentication with Ubuntu 21.04

        The following guide explains how to use the Google Authenticator PAM module on Ubuntu for both SSH and sudo authentication. Usernames and passwords can undoubtedly be broken utilizing plenty of hacking methods. So, any organization or element that seriously treats security needs to carry out 2-Factor confirmation.

        In addition to the conventional password provided. An extra layer of authentication will be added for SSH. That extra layer will be Google authenticator. Where using google authenticator the password will be generated on your mobile device. This will add an extra layer of security while accessing your server using SSH. This two-factor authentication system will improve the security liability of the server or other related resources.

        So, in our scenario, we will be using SSH and Ubuntu 21.04 for demonstration purposes. A smart device installed with Google Authenitcator is required, android in our case.

      • Set Up Open VPN Server and Client on CentOS 8. - Unixcop the Unix / Linux the admins deams

        In this post, you will learn how to set up Open VPN Server and Client on CentOS 8.

        A virtual private network extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.

      • How to Utilize Kubectl in Verbose Log Level

        Kubernetes is the foundation for handling the containerized submissions through numerous hosts and provides a simple appliance for organizing, maintaining, and scrabbling the applications. Kubernetes is a helpful tool for arranging and handling the applications. However, even experienced Kubernetes devotees agree that Kubernetes placements and debugging broken pods can be difficult. This is due to the dispersed nature of Kubernetes that marks it as difficult to imitate the particular problem and define the reason.

        Whether fixing the application in Kubernetes or on a computer, it’s important to ensure that the process stays the same. The tools used are identical, but Kubernetes is used to examine the form and outputs. We can utilize kubectl to begin the debugging procedure at any time or utilize some debugging tools. This article describes certain common strategies that we utilize to fix the Kubernetes placement and some definite faults we can assume.

        In addition, we learn how to organize and manage Kubernetes clusters and how to arrange the whole policy to the cloud with constant assimilation and continuous distribution. In this tutorial, we are going to discuss further the Kubernetes clusters and the method of debugging and retrieving the logs from the application.

      • The Kubectl Debug Feature

        A common problem with new Kubernetes installations is when a service is not performing properly. You have created a service and run your Pods via a deployment or another task controller. However, nothing happens when you try to access it. In this post, we will explain the background of debugging, a new feature in kubectl. Each Pod in Kubernetes runs as a docker container, which is separated using the Linux namespace isolation feature. For processes, each container has its filesystem. The debug capability automates container attachment and namespace sharing with a single command and no manifest files.

        Every developer and DevOps engineer who works with Kubernetes has to debug containerized workloads and Pods daily. Simple kubectl logs or kubectl describe Pods can often pinpoint the source of a problem. However, certain issues are more difficult to track down. You could attempt kubectl exec in certain cases. However, even that might not be adequate because some containers, such as Distroless, don’t even have a shell that you can SSH into. So, if all of the foregoing fails, what are our options? The kubectl debug, as a new instruction added not long ago (v1.18), would be the right tool for troubleshooting workloads on Kubernetes.

      • Kubectl Exec Command With Arguments

        The kubectl exec command creates easy to accomplish tasks remotely within the current container of the pod. If we want to see the contents, status, and environment of the container, it is simple. The kubectl exec command is a lifesaver for all users who frequently interrelate with containerized Kubernetes requests. We can examine and fix the app by running different commands in the container. Kubectl is one of the tools for running Kubernetes commands.

        In this article, we are going to describe the syntax of kubectl, actions of different commands, and common instances. We have to create the situation on the container for the procedure to run effectively. The real purpose of using the shell script is to construct the environment according to the requirement and start the core procedure. When using this procedure, shell scripts are assigned PID 1 instead of a method. Therefore, we must operate the exec command to begin the procedure. This is the built-in instruction of the shell script. The exec instruction substitutes the script with the required application. At that time, PID 1 is directed to the procedure. This artifact gives specifics on how to use the kubectl exec command.

      • Kubectl Ignore Certificate

        TLS encryption is an essential requirement of a secure system. This system spontaneously supports TLS termination/HTTP. This simplifies TLS encryption and centralizes TLS termination for every resource in Kubernetes. This instinctive certificate management is useful for simple TLS configurations in a cluster. However, open-source representatives access the requirements provided by the certificate to activate TLS. In this article, we describe the procedure of assisting TLS using a certificate formed by using the OpenSSL service.

      • How to Run the Kubectl Exec Commands

        When we make a pod, we have to define the commands and parameters for the containers running on the pod. Before starting a command, we add a field of command to the conformation file. To describe the command and parameters, we have to add the args field to the conformation file. We cannot modify the definite commands and arguments once the pod is formed. The commands and parameters described in the configuration file supersede the default commands and parameters delivered through the container image. When we state an argument but not a command, the definite command is utilized with a different argument. Command fields relate to specific container’s runtime entry points. We will make a pod that runs a different container. The pod’s configuration folder states the command and parameters.

        A kubectl command-line service is an influential tool that we can utilize to build items and interrelate through the Kubernetes API. Though by this time, it makes sense to run the kubectl commands, which are applied to every Kubernetes item. In this article, we are going to discuss kubectl exec multiple commands.

      • How to Delete a Node in Kubernetes

        Kubernetes manages your workload by dividing it into Pods that execute on Nodes. A node might be a physical or virtual machine, as it completely depends on the cluster. The control plane manages each node, containing the services required to execute Pods. In a cluster, there are usually numerous nodes. However, in a learning or resource-limited context, there may be only one node. The kubelet, the kube-proxy, and a container runtime are all installed on a node. Using the kubectl commands, you can easily delete a pod from a Kubernetes node. Before you delete a pod, however, you should go through the following steps. This article will provide the complete guidelines on how to delete a Kubernetes node.

        We have implemented this tutorial on an Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. You can also do the same. Let’s get the minikube cluster up and running on an Ubuntu 20.04 Linux server by using the attached command.

      • How to create temporary files using mktemp on Linux

        Temporary files and directories are very important: they can be used from shell scripts for example, to store information which are necessary to complete some tasks and can be safely removed once the work is done. In this tutorial we will see how to safely create temporary files and directories using the mktemp utility on Linux.

      • Introduction to crypttab with examples

        In a Linux based operating system, the crypttab file (/etc/crypttab), is used to store static information about encrypted block devices which are meant to be set up and unlocked at boot. In this tutorial we learn how it is structured and how to organize data in it.

    • Games

      • Whipping Together A Little Ray Tracer Racer | Hackaday

        When you hear raytracing, you might think of complex dark algorithms that to stare too long at their source code invites the beginning of madness. And you’re technically not far off from the truth, but [h3r2tic] put a small open-source ray tracing game demo up on GitHub. The actual rust code powering the game is relatively short (just four files), with the longest file being the physics file. But, of course, there is a small mountain of code under this sample in the form of libraries.

        Kajiya, physx-rs, and dolly are the three libraries that make this little demo possible. Kajiya, in particular, is what makes raytracing possible as it uses the newer RTX features (so only more recent Nvidia and AMD cards are supported) and Vulkan bindings. But, of course, it isn’t wholly ray-traced as we are still several years out from proper real-time raytracing. Nevertheless, the blend between raytracing and traditional rasterization looks incredible. The most important thing about this simple tiny sample isn’t the game itself but what it stands for. It shows how easy it is to create a sample like this. Even just five years, creating a demo like this required massive effort and expertise.

    • Desktop Environments/WMs

      • Desktop Environment Vs. Window Manager

        Every new Linux user is likely to run across the question of what the difference is between a desktop environment and a window manager at some point in their learning process. I’ve been asked this question several times, and the answer isn’t always simple. It depends on the questioner’s previous knowledge and how well he has grasped the basics of a Linux operating system.

        In this article, I will attempt to answer this question from the standpoint of a new Linux user. For new users, please have a seat and join us as we begin the article. For more experienced users who have anything to contribute to the subject, please start a discussion below this post or join our Discord community. I will surely add valuable information in the article shared by the community members.

      • Enlightenment Desktop Update Brings a New Look, Fingerprint Support + More - OMG! Ubuntu!

        An all-new version of the Enlightenment desktop for Linux and BSD has been released.

        Arriving over the Christmas period, Enlightenment 0.25.x (E25) is a sizeable update to the innovative window manager n’ shell combo, and includes new versions of many core modules.

        Now, Enlightenment is not strictly a ‘desktop environment’ per se, more a collection of modular technologies designed to work together. Still, the end result looks a lot like a desktop environment so, in much the same way people refer to KDE Neon as a Linux distro, many people call Enlightenment a desktop environment — it’s shorthand.

        There are some really great visual additions shipping in E25, including a new ‘flat’ look and theme, higher-quality wallpapers, and window previews when hovering over Tasks.

        Additionally, devs say they’ve refactored code for screen dimming/blanking/timeout, added gesture recognition for touchpads via elput, improved monitoring of hardware temperatures via hwmon, and made it easy to see Bluetooth battery levels from within the Enlightenment desktop.

      • K Desktop Environment/KDE SC/Qt

        • KDE's Plasma Wayland Session Achieves Better Battery Life Than With X.Org - Phoronix

          Last week I posted some benchmarks looking at the laptop battery life implications of GNOME's Wayland vs. X.Org sessions. From that testing with a Lenovo ThinkPad T14s Gen2 with AMD Ryzen 7 PRO 5850U laptop, the GNOME Wayland session led to around 3 Watt lower power consumption than with the same software stack while logging into the X.Org-based session. For those curious about the KDE Wayland vs. X.Org power impact, here is the same set of tests carried out in the KDE space.

          Due to reader interest stemming from that GNOME testing last week, off the Ryzen 7 PRO 5850U powered notebook running Ubuntu 21.10, I ran the same tests with the KDE Plasma Wayland and KDE Plasma X.Org sessions side-by-side with the GNOME results.

    • Distributions

      • Manjaro 21.2 Qonos Gnome - It's an alright distro, but ...

        Linux distros seem to be a game of chance. Take five categories of functional usability. Now, three of these will be excellent, and two will be awful, and you can choose how to assemble the final model, but you won't get away from the equation. Something will be brilliant, and something will suck, and in the next release, the odds will change in a random way, and round and round we go. This was exciting in 2007, it's sad in 2021. The number of people who actually want to stick by the classic desktop is not getting bigger, newer generations don't have our fascination with the keyboard and mouse (apart from the cruel reality of work), and each day, the dream of Linux making it big gets that much farther away. And it comes down, among many various reasons, to the total lack of product focus, no quality control or any serious testing, and dev-focused, dev-driven design.

        Manjaro 20.2 fits the description well. Some superb points coupled to 2005 command-line tricks that no one wants or needs, dubious ergonomic choices, and just too much inconsistency to rely on for serious work. I know the nerds will hate me, ignore me, label me [favorite ad hominem], whatever, but that does not change the fact that only a pure, dedicated techie can and will be able to commit oneself to Qonos. Now, that said, I am actually cautiously optimistic about Manjaro. Over the years, it's showed steady progress. Yes, lots of inconsistency and randomness, but there's progress, too.

        This means, one day, Manjaro could be a mature, reliable system for ordinary people as well as diehard techies. I just hope that happens before total Digital Dystopia befalls us, before the "bullshit as a service" devours us all. That's the reason for my bitterness, dear nerds. It's not that I hate Linux, it's that I hate the world that awaits us, and resent the fact no distro has managed to redeem us yet, because they are all stuck in a self-feeding loop of dev-centric mantras that have no bearing to 99% of people out there. Anyway, Qonos ain't bad, but its Gnome flavor is probably not the best choice, and you might as well give it a try, see what gives.

      • Linux Distro Types Explained: Originals, Derivatives, Flavors

        If you’ve heard about Linux, you’ve probably heard terms like Fork, Derivative, and Flavor. They refer to different Linux distro types, so let’s learn more about them.

        These terms being used to distinguish one type of distribution from another and they are actually very helpful. In fact, they help you differentiate between how a particular Linux distribution will work from another one.

        If you don’t know what these terms means, don’t worry. In this article I’m going to break down this terms, explain what they mean and how you can use these terms to narrow down your options in picking the best Linux distribution for you.

        Above all there are two terms that are like main hierarchy terms – Original distributions and Derivative distributions.

      • SUSE/OpenSUSE

        • Download redirector current state - openSUSE News

          Package updates are a bit controversial point in the openSUSE world and sometimes are related to questionable user experience, especially for those who are outside of Europe and the US.

          It is important to understand that it is controversial to compare to experience in other distributions because openSUSE infrastructure is responsible not only for downloading Leap and Tumbleweed packages but potentially any other OBS project on any supported architecture / OS. This makes openSUSE infrastructure care about ~95000 various projects, which can receive updates every moment; compared to 5-8 projects with more or less defined release schedule in the typical infrastructure of other Linux providers.

          Now, somebody can point out that openSUSE could split those challenges and provide a more consistent experience for selected projects like Leap and Tumbleweed, and have a separate solution for other OBS projects. This way allows minimizing chances of poor experience for most users and newcomers. And that will be a correct observation, just it doesn’t make the overall technical challenge much simpler and potentially will require more resources to enable and support both solutions. In any case, this paper doesn’t have the intention of going deeper into such discussion and its main goal is to serve general OBS downloads and Leap / Tumbleweed downloads as part of that.

      • IBM/Red Hat/Fedora

        • 5 Redhat enterprise based alternatives for CentOS 8 | 7 in 2022

          Here is the list of best RHEL based CentOS 7 or 8 Linux server alternatives or replacements in 2022 to start hosting server applications on Cloud or VPS. Well, if you don’t want to go through articles then AlmaLinux and RockyLinux are the best CentOS alternatives to go with.

          With the end of support in CentOS 8 by RHEL, people start looking for Linux distribution to replace their existing CentOS 8 or looking to upgrade CentOS 7 to some other compatible one. Well, your quest might end here, if you are one of them.

          Although we have an Ubuntu server to replace CentOS, however, there are many users already using RPM-based server applications. Hence, the Debian-based server wouldn’t be a great option. Of course, those who want to start from scratch to set up their servers, can for sure go for it.

          Well, the CentOS version series 7. x, which will receive updates until the regular end of support in June 2024, remains unaffected. CentOS 7.9 will therefore be the last edition to be created from the RHEL sources. The reason behind this is that still many companies relied on CentOS 7. Therefore, the CentOS developers do not want to stop the distribution prematurely.

          Whereas, as Redhat announced CentOS 8 will be available as a rolling distro in the form of Stream. Well, those are already using the Stream version, then maybe you want to get and test the CentOS 9 Stream available as an ISO file.

      • Canonical/Ubuntu Family

        • 10 Cool Things to do With Linux Mint

          Linux Mint is one of the most popular Linux distros that focuses on simplicity, stability, and availability of software packages. It strives to be a modern, elegant, and comfortable operating system that’s easy to use. Because it’s based in Ubuntu, it also comes with robust community support.

          In this guide, we’ll explore some of the most interesting and cool things you can do with Linux Mint.

        • Ubuntu Fridge | Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter Issue 715

          Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter, Issue 715 for the week of December 19 – 25, 2021.

    • Devices/Embedded

    • Free, Libre, and Open Source Software

      • Productivity Software/LibreOffice/Calligra

      • Funding

        • How to get selected for Outreachy internships

          We recently documented the series of encounters linking Chris Lamb with an Albanian woman who received travel grants and a $6,000 Outreachy internship from Debian.

          Other women may want to apply for the same funds in future. We don't want to cause any embarrassment, we are simply providing more details to help other women decide if they want to take risks with Debian.

          The woman began contributing as an OpenStreetMap (OSM) volunteer. She has contributed as a mapper, not as a developer. She was invited to the State of the Map conference to give a talk about community. She has good speaking skills.

          She enrolled in undergraduate studies in agriculture. She worked part time in various jobs that do not involve technology.

          OSM Belgium runs a monthly Mapper of the Month interview. In 2018 they selected this woman for the interview, she answers a wide range of questions.

          It is an unfortunate coincidence, these interviews were run by OSM Belgium and her ex was an OSM mapper from Belgium. He blogged a series of photos from the infamous FOSSCamp where Albanians used funds from free software organizations to travel to the Greek island of Syros. Here they are together:

        • Matcher Interview - Mark Galassi [Ed: Supporting people who attack the FSF for personal gain?]

          This fundraising season we were incredibly fortunate to be supported by so many individuals. In addition to our large anonymous donors, we had a few people contribute to bump up the number. One of donors was a board member, Mark Galassi, who runs The Institute for Computing in Research. We asked him a few questions about free software and his passion and motivations for interdisciplinary research.

      • Programming/Development

        • It’s Printable, It’s Programmable, It’s E. Coli | Hackaday

          Well, whaddya know? It seems that E. coli, the bane of Romaine and spinach everywhere, has at least one practical use. Researchers at Harvard have created a kind of 3D-printable ink that is alive and made entirely of microbes produced by E. coli. Although this is not the first so-called living ink, it does hold the title of the first living ink that doesn’t need any additional polymers to provide structure.

        • Rust Dev Lang – how to view onboard html based documentation (man page) – The Rust Standard Library
        • Perl/Raku

          • 2021.52 JDV Released – Rakudo Weekly News

            Justin DeVuyst has announced the 2021.12 Rakudo Compiler Release, their first release and hopefully the first of many to come! Claudio Ramirez quickly provided Linux packages for this release. And JJ Merelo published updated Docker Containers. And Anton Oks published a new Rakudo Star Windows image. Good to see such cooperation! And good to see more and more coverage about the Raku Programming Language!

        • C++

          • Beginner C++ Projects

            Students might find it challenging to get started with long and expert-level projects when learning a new language. Students used to derive help from books, online programming tutorials, and guides. However, these sources are not enough when you want to become an expert at a certain language. Hence, they try to search for projects which are less complicated, short, and simple to accomplish within the initial stage of practice. Within this guide, we will let you know about some C++ beginner projects along with their codes that are short and easy. Now, let’s start with Ubuntu 20.04 system.

          • Array as Parameter C++

            Functions in C++ can accept different types of arguments when they are called. In the same manner, an array can also be passed as a parameter to a function in C++. To figure out whether passing an array as a parameter to a function in C++ is the same as passing any other type of argument to a function or not, you will have to give a read to this article.

          • Argc and Argv C++

            While writing C++ programs, we all know that the “main()” function is considered very important since we cannot compile our program if the implementation of this function is missing. Just like all other functions in C++, the “main()” function is also capable of accepting arguments. However, the difference between passing arguments to the “main()” function from passing arguments to the other functions is that you have to pass the arguments through the command line in the former case. It is so because the “main()” function itself is the driver function which is why no other function is capable of calling it and passing arguments to it. In this article, we will be discussing the two parameters of the “main()” function, i.e., “argc” and “argv” in C++ in Ubuntu 20.04.

        • Java

          • Convert List to Array in Java

            A list differs from an array, in the sense that it can grow or shrink in length. It can also have elements inserted within its length, and so increasing the length. It can also have its elements deleted. If the aim of the list is not to make it grow or shrink or have any special function, then the array should be used. And so, it would be necessary to convert a list to an array.

            In Java, a list is not a class. It is an interface. An interface in Java is like an abstract class, but it is not meant to be subclassed. An interface is meant to have unrelated classes. The method declarations without body of the interface are defined in a class implemented from the interface. This should not be confused with instantiation. An object is instantiated from a class. A method is implemented from an abstract method, which may be a member of an interface, or an abstract class. With the interface, the “abstract” method declaration is not preceded by the reserved word, abstract. Note: a class created from an interface is said to have implemented the interface.

            Among classes of list already implemented in the Java compiler, are the ArrayList, LinkedList and Vector. These three classes will be used to show how a list can be converted into an array in this article, beginning with the ArrayList.

          • Java Thread Sleep

            A thread can be made to halt its execution for some time before it continues to operate. The thread is considered to sleep, in the period that it halts. But, what is a thread? A thread is a sub-program. It is possible to have more than one thread in one program, running concurrently. The main program itself is the main thread. A single threaded program is just the normal program. In Java, the normal program is the class that has the main() method. In a multi-threaded program, the main() method, can be considered as the main thread.

            A thread can be created by sub-classing the Thread class. The thread can be made to sleep. This article explains how to make a thread sleep, beginning with a summary of how to create a new thread in Java. The Thread class does not need to be imported in order to have a thread in the program.

          • Recursion in Java

            Recursion in Java is the calling of a method, by the method, from within the method. This action repeats itself until a condition is met. The method should be a method in a class, other than one in the main class. The main class is the class that has the main() method. The name of the Java file is that of the main class. A static method in the main class can still be made recursive, but that will not be addressed in this article. This article explains recursion in Java, with three good examples.

          • Java Thread Timer Usage

            In Java, a timer is a class from which timer objects can be instantiated. The timer schedules task for execution in the near future. A task is like a method (function). Java has the class, TimerTask from which task objects can be instantiated. Different tasks are scheduled to operate (execute) at different times. This tutorial explains how to instantiate and use the timer object in Java, beginning with the instantiation of the TimerTask object and its nature.

          • Java instanceof Operator

            The instanceof operator checks if its operand on the left is an object of its operand on the right. If yes, it returns true, otherwise it returns false, or issues an error message at compile time. The operand on the left should be an instantiated object of the operand on the right. The operand on the right is a type, e.g. a class.

          • 2D Array in Java

            In Java, a one-dimensional array is a consecutive set of values of the same type. The type of the values is the type of the array. A 1D array is an object from the Object superclass. A 1d array is a list. In this article, the list for the one-dimensional array is assumed to be displayed in a vertical column. A 1d array has the property length, which returns the number of elements in the array.

            A two-dimensional array is a table. A table is a vertical list of horizontal lists. In Java, a two-dimensional array is an array of arrays. That is, a 2d array is a vertical array of horizontal arrays. That is, a 2D array in Java is a vertical list of horizontal lists. The 2D array has rows and columns. The length of the 2D array is the number of rows, which is the length property of the 1D column array. All the values in all the cells of the table are of the same type; this is said to be the type of the 2D array.

            This article explains, what a 2D array in Java is, and how to create and access its elements. All code for this article takes place in the main() method.

          • && and & Operators in Java

            In Java, && is called the conditional-And operator. It is an example of a logical operator in Java. As another operator, & has two functions in Java. In one situation, it is called a logical-And operator. In the other situation, it is called the bitwise-AND operator. Each of these operators is a binary operator. This means that each has an operand on its left and on its right. The result of all that expression can be assigned to a variable. These operators work with primitive types, and so its class does not have to be imported by the programmer.

          • Absolute Value in Java

            A number can be an int, a long, a float, or a double. The difference between an int and a long variable is that the long variable can hold a bigger value than an int variable. A long variable can also hold a number that an int would hold. Each of these number types can be negative or positive. For example, an int can be -5 or +5. When it is +5, the plus sign in front of it can be omitted.

            So, a number can be negative or positive. Absolute value is simply the positive value of the pair. The positive value is still the number without a sign. Java has the math abs() method to return the absolute number. So, if the argument is -5, 5 will be returned. If the argument is +5 or 5, 5 will be returned. Java also has the absExact() method – see below.

            These methods are all of the Math class. The Math class does not have to be imported by the programmer to be used. This article explains the use of the abs() and absExact() methods of the math class.

  • Leftovers

    • Science

      • Taste The Television: TTTV | Hackaday

        Associate Professor [Homei Miyashita] from Meiji University’s School of Science and Technology in Tokyo has developed a new technology for reproducing taste on a television or monitor, a system called Taste the TV (TTTV). The team of researchers used taste sensors to sample a variety of foods, and came up with a palette of 10 different aerosol flavors which can be combined in various ratios. The taste is generated in a staging area at the top of the screen onto a thin plastic film, which is then scrolled down into position.

    • Hardware

      • Single Bit Computer From Vacuum Tubes | Hackaday

        Culminating a year-long project, [Usagi Electric] aka [David] has just wrapped up his single-bit vacuum tube computer. It is based on the Motorola MC14500 1-bit industrial controller, but since [David] changed the basic logic unit into an arithmetic-logic unit, he’s dubbing it the UE14500. Built on a wooden panel about 2.5 x 3 rabbit lengths excluding power supply. [David] admits he has cheated a little bit, in that he’s using two silicon diodes instead of a 6AL5 dual diode tube in his universal NOR gate on which the computer is based — but in his defense he notes that plenty of vacuum tube computers of the era used silicon diodes.

    • Monopolies

      • Patents

        • Voluntary licensing on the rise as Medicines Patent Pool signs second deal for COVID-19 treatment [Ed: This is not good enough; a "compromise" to avoid having these patent monopolies canceled altogether (as they ought to, for many reasons); Caution: Bristows bias]

          It was announced last week (16 November 2021) that Pfizer has agreed a voluntary licence with the UN-backed Medicines Patent Pool for Pfizer’s oral COVID-19 antiviral treatment candidate, PF-07321332. PF-07321332 has not yet been approved by regulators but has shown promising results in controlling symptoms of COVID-19. Recent interim analysis from Pfizer’s Phase 2/3 trial showed an 89% reduction in risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization or death compared to placebo in patients treated within three days of symptom onset. It will be administered with a low dose of ritonavir (a repurposed HIV antiviral medicine) which helps slow the breakdown of PF-07321332 in the body.

        • The United Arab Emirates Joined The Madrid System [Ed: WIPO is protecting the richest, while the rest of us are the 'collateral damage']

          The World Intellectual Property Organization ("WIPO") has announced that it has received the United Arab Emirates' accession document to the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks ("Madrid Protocol"). Accordingly, the United Arab Emirates has become a member country of the Madrid System.

          Through the Madrid System, trademark owners can file a single international application to enjoy trademark protection in multiple member countries. Alongside facilitating the process of obtaining and managing trademark registrations, the Madrid System allows saving time and money by the single language and a single set of fees

        • European Union: Long Covid In The Way We Work [Ed: Henrik Skodt (aera) seems to be celebrating the EPO breaking the law because this suits some patent litigation companies, though nobody else]

          We have all had to adapt our way of working to the new reality we have lived in the last year. One significant change for those of us regularly doing oral proceedings before the European Patent Office (EPO) (and not living in the Munich area) is that we have not actually gone to the EPO since the beginning of the pandemic.

          The EPO showed great initiative when they introduced the pilot project for conducting oral proceedings in opposition proceedings by videoconference (ViCo) in May 2020. Until then, it had only been possible to do oral proceedings by ViCo before Examining Divisions. Since it was a pilot project, oral proceedings by ViCo before Opposition Divisions were made dependent on the consent of the parties to the proceedings.

        • New presiding judge for Munich Higher Regional Court's patent-specialized 6th Civil Senate: Judge Lars Meinhardt succeeds Judge Konrad Retzer

          Munich is one of the world's most important patent litigation hotspots. Last month the new patent litigation division of the Landgericht München I (Munich I Regional Court)--the 44. Zivilkammer (44th Civil Chamber)--held its premiere hearing. Today I've been able to find out from the press office of the Oberlandesgericht München (Munich Higher Regional Court) who will succeed retired Presiding Judge Konrad Retzer of the 6. Zivilsenat (6th Civil Senate), which hears patent appeals from the lower Munich court but also some other IP and competition matters: Judge Lars Meinhardt.

          Judge Meinhardt has not been mentioned on this blog before. You can find a picture and short bio (in German) here. He presided over the lower Munich court's 33rd Civil Chamber from 2012 to 2018. The 33rd Civil Chamber hears cases involving trademark, copyright, design rights, and unfair competition claims--all of which fields are adjacent to patent law. He then joined the 29th Civil Senate of the Munich appeals court, which has a similar focus. Apparently he also dealt with matters involving the professional code governing the work of patent attorneys.

        • Sinusoidal Vision Technology has been officially patented in China [Ed: China hands out literally million of junk patents, so what's to boast about here?]

          VSY Biotechnology registered a patent with the People's Republic of China for the 'Sinusoidal Vision Technology' used in AcrivaUD Trinova Pro C Pupil Adaptive€®, the world's first and only sinusoidal trifocal intraocular lens. As a result of evaluations, office actions, examinations, correspondence, and revisions, the state intellectual property office of the People's Republic of China subsequently approved the patent for VSY Biotechnology’s 'Sinusoidal Vision Technology'. Furthermore, after registering a European Patent (EP) for SVT, VSY Biotechnology received validation from the relevant patent offices from Europe. VSY Biotechnology's 'Sinusoidal Vision Technology' has patent registration in many countries of the world.

        • The perks and pitfalls of creating prolific AI inventors [Ed: This says "he says he should own the patent rights because he owns DABUS." But patents are not rights, aren't owned and so on. This helps spread lies for a troll and charlatan who provokes courts and patent offices.]

          Artificial intelligence (AI) has had a profound impact on our society in recent years, but it’s been around longer than you may realize. Many people attribute the beginning of AI to a paper written in 1950 by Alan Turing titled “Computer Machinery and Intelligence.” The term artificial intelligence, however, was first coined in 1956 at a conference that took place at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. Since then, interest in AI has wavered. Its most recent resurgence can be attributed to IBM’s Deep Blue chess-playing supercomputer and its question-answering machine Watson. Today, AI is part of our everyday lives – from facial recognition technology and ride-share apps to smart assistants. It’s also at the forefront of the future’s driverless vehicles.

          As AI continues to get more and more intelligent, it begs the question – should AI machines be able to patent their inventions?

          At the center of this debate is Stephen Thaler and his AI computer DABUS (“device for the autonomous bootstrapping of unified science”). Unlike everyday AI such as Alexa and Siri, DABUS is a unique type of AI often referred to as a “creativity machine,” meaning it is capable of independent and complex functioning. As such, it is named as the sole inventor on two patent applications filed in several countries. One invention is for a food container, and the other for an alert light. This has resulted in a worldwide legal fight and debate over how to handle computer-created innovation.

          Thaler claims he didn’t direct the machine to invent these products. Instead, he said that DABUS analyzes data, generates ideas, and invents products. Since Thaler wasn’t involved in the process of inventing these products, he feels that DABUS should be named as the inventor. However, he says he should own the patent rights because he owns DABUS.

        • Software Patents

          • Preventing payment in case of an incorrect amount entered by a customer: non-technical [Ed: Software patents denied, but Bardehle Pagenberg (or Patrick Heckeler in this case) keeps looking for sneaky new ways to pass them through an already profoundly compromised EPO]

            In this decision, relevant for providers of digital payment solutions, the European Patent Office refused to grant a patent relating to prevent a payment in case of an incorrect amount entered by a customer. Here are the practical takeaways of the decision T 0994/18 of July 20, 2021 of Technical Board of Appeal 3.5.01...

          • As AI powers more and more medical technology don’t overlook patenting - Tim Hargreaves & Rhona Muir [Ed: Scottish media taken over by patent fanatics and profiteers who disguise fake patents like software patents using buzzwords like "Hey Hi" and "Medical Technology (MedTech)"]

            Scotland has a thriving Medical Technology (MedTech) industry, with more than 250 companies, and approximately 9,000 people employed in the sector. Many of these businesses have Artificial Intelligence (AI) powering them, as AI’s ability to analyse large swathes of data in a matter of moments enables faster diagnosis and improved patient outcomes.

          • $2,000 for SecurityProfiling prior art

            On December 27, 2021, Unified Patents added a new PATROLL contest, with a $2,000 cash prize, seeking prior art on at least claim 1 of U.S. Patent 10,873,595. The patent is owned by SecurityProfiling, LLC, an NPE. The '595 patent relates to real-time vulnerability monitoring. The patent has been asserted against Cisco and Trend Micro.

      • Trademarks

        • Turkey: Madrid E-Filing Now Available To Applicants In Turkey [Ed: Be sure to check who runs TURKPATENT]

          As a result of the cooperation between the Turkish Patent and Trademark Office (TURKPATENT) and WIPO,Turkey has taken its place among thecountries that enable applicants to file their international trademark applications directly through the Madrid e-Filing service.

          Before this change, the MM2 form - the application form for the registration of international trademark applications - had to be filled in manually and submitted to TURKPATENT via the EPATS - TURKPATENT's electronic filing system - for processing.

      • Copyrights

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