Bonum Certa Men Certa

Help Fight Patent Bullying From Shazam -- Spread This Code!


Summary: This post looks at patent bullying against Free software and it calls for the spreading of source code which Shazam unlawfully tries to remove from the Internet

EARLIER TODAY we wrote about NetApp's threats against ZFS distributors. As one blogger put it:

Enterprise Strategy Group senior analyst Terri McClure wonders why NetApp didn't hit Nexenta with the same letter since Nexenta supplies its ZFS software to multiple storage vendors.

"If NetApp did it would make sense – stop a number of vendors instead of just one. It certainly makes you wonder why they would single out Coraid, people could read into this that NetApp sees Coraid as a threat. Coraid's NAS product is pretty new but the underlying platform has been on the market a while and is solid, at a really aggressive price point," said McClure.

"[NetApp] just spent a couple of hundred dollars in lawyer's fees and took a competitor out of the market. Quick and easy, but a little disappointing, too. At the end of the day, ZFS is open source, and while there is no way to predict how the settlement talks between Oracle and NetApp will turn out, you can't really un-open source ZFS," she said.

There's still no word from NetApp on the matter.

The "patent troll, NTP, is back, buoyed dosh from RIM," says Glyn Moody, who found this new article.

NTP, a patent-holding company best known for prying a settlement of more than $600 million from the maker of the BlackBerry, is now suing the other big names in the smartphone industry: Apple, Google, Microsoft, HTC, LG and Motorola, writes The New York Times’s Steve Lohr.

The suits, filed late Thursday afternoon in federal district court in Richmond, Va., charge that the cellphone e-mail systems of those companies are illegally using NTP’s patented technology.

We mentioned NTP before and so did Patent Troll Tracker. Speaking of trolls, earlier today we wrote about Shazam's patent bullying. That previous post gave just the gist of it and the discussion at Slashdot ought to say more. From the summary:

"The code wasn't even released, and yet Roy van Rijn, a Music & Free Software enthusiast received a C&D from Landmark Digital Services, owners of Shazam, a music service that allows you to find a song, by listening to a part of it. And if that wasn't enough, they want him to take down his blog post (Google Cache) explaining how he did it because it 'may be viewed internationally. As a result, [it] may contribute to someone infringing our patents in any part of the world.'"

Jan Wildeboer calls it "Patent Infringement Madness" and another post Wildeboer says "is (a) a blog entry or (b) patent infringement? I say (a) Shazam says (b)"

Two readers urged us to make a mirror just in case (other people ought to mirror this too, in order to ensure that Shazam will lose hope of successfully censoring perfectly legal Dutch code).

Patents are supposed to encourage publication of ideas, not to suppress them. The following code is not in any way infringing Shazam copyrights.

Creating Shazam in Java

A couple of days ago I encountered this article: How Shazam Works

This got me interested in how a program like Shazam works… And more importantly, how hard is it to program something similar in Java?

About Shazam

Shazam is an application which you can use to analyse/match music. When you install it on your phone, and hold the microphone to some music for about 20 to 30 seconds, it will tell you which song it is.

When I first used it it gave me a magical feeling. “How did it do that!?”. And even today, after using it a lot, it still has a bit of magical feel to it.
Wouldn’t it be great if we can program something of our own that gives that same feeling? That was my goal for the past weekend.

Listen up..!

First things first, get the music sample to analyse we first need to listen to the microphone in our Java application…! This is something I hadn’t done yet in Java, so I had no idea how hard this was going to be.

But it turned out it was very easy:

1 final AudioFormat format = getFormat(); //Fill AudioFormat with the wanted settings

2 DataLine.Info info = new DataLine.Info(TargetDataLine.class, format);
3 final TargetDataLine line = (TargetDataLine) AudioSystem.getLine(info);

5 line.start();

Now we can read the data from the TargetDataLine just like a normal InputStream:

01 // In another thread I start:


03 OutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();

04 running = true;


06 try {

07     while (running) {

08         int count =, 0, buffer.length);

09         if (count > 0) {

10             out.write(buffer, 0, count);

11         }

12     }

13     out.close();

14 } catch (IOException e) {

15     System.err.println("I/O problems: " + e);

16     System.exit(-1);

17 }

Using this method it is easy to open the microphone and record all the sounds! The AudioFormat I’m currently using is:

1 private AudioFormat getFormat() {

2     float sampleRate = 44100;

3     int sampleSizeInBits = 8;

4     int channels = 1; //mono

5     boolean signed = true;

6     boolean bigEndian = true;

7     return new AudioFormat(sampleRate, sampleSizeInBits, channels, signed, bigEndian);

8 }

So, now we have the recorded data in a ByteArrayOutputStream, great! Step 1 complete.

Microphone data

The next challenge is analyzing the data, when I outputted the data I received in my byte array I got a long list of numbers, like this:

01 0

02 0

03 1

04 2

05 4

06 7

07 6

08 3

09 -1

10 -2

11 -4

12 -2

13 -5

14 -7

15 -8

16 (etc)

Erhm… yes? This is sound?

To see if the data could be visualized I took the output and placed it in Open Office to generate a line graph:

Ah yes! This kind of looks like ’sound’. It looks like what you see when using for example Windows Sound Recorder.

This data is actually known as time domain. But these numbers are currently basically useless to us… if you read the above article on how Shazam works you’ll read that they use a spectrum analysis instead of direct time domain data.
So the next big question is: How do we transform the current data into a spectrum analysis?

Discrete Fourier transform

To turn our data into usable data we need to apply the so called Discrete Fourier Transformation. This turns the data from time domain into frequency domain.
There is just one problem, if you transform the data into the frequency domain you loose every bit of information regarding time. So you’ll know what the magnitude of all the frequencies are, but you have no idea when they appear.

To solve this we need a sliding window. We take chunks of data (in my case 4096 bytes of data) and transform just this bit of information. Then we know the magnitude of all frequencies that occur during just these 4096 bytes.

Implementing this

Instead of worrying about the Fourier Transformation I googled a bit and found code for the so called FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation). I’m calling this code with the chunks:

01 byte audio[] = out.toByteArray();


03 final int totalSize = audio.length;


05 int amountPossible = totalSize/Harvester.CHUNK_SIZE;


07 //When turning into frequency domain we'll need complex numbers:

08 Complex[][] results = new Complex[amountPossible][];


10 //For all the chunks:

11 for(int times = 0;times < amountPossible; times++) {

12     Complex[] complex = new Complex[Harvester.CHUNK_SIZE];

13     for(int i = 0;i < Harvester.CHUNK_SIZE;i++) {

14         //Put the time domain data into a complex number with imaginary part as 0:

15         complex[i] = new Complex(audio[(times*Harvester.CHUNK_SIZE)+i], 0);

16     }

17     //Perform FFT analysis on the chunk:

18     results[times] = FFT.fft(complex);

19 }


21 //Done!

Now we have a double array containing all chunks as Complex[]. This array contains data about all frequencies. To visualize this data I decided to implement a full spectrum analyzer (just to make sure I got the math right).
To show the data I hacked this together:

01 for(int i = 0; i < results.length; i++) {

02     int freq = 1;

03     for(int line = 1; line < size; line++) {

04         // To get the magnitude of the sound at a given frequency slice

05         // get the abs() from the complex number.

06         // In this case I use Math.log to get a more managable number (used for color)

07         double magnitude = Math.log(results[i][freq].abs()+1);


09         // The more blue in the color the more intensity for a given frequency point:

10         g2d.setColor(new Color(0,(int)magnitude*10,(int)magnitude*20));

11         // Fill:

12         g2d.fillRect(i*blockSizeX, (size-line)*blockSizeY,blockSizeX,blockSizeY);


14         // I used a improviced logarithmic scale and normal scale:

15         if (logModeEnabled && (Math.log10(line) * Math.log10(line)) > 1) {

16             freq += (int) (Math.log10(line) * Math.log10(line));

17         } else {

18             freq++;

19         }

20     }

21 }

Introducing, Aphex Twin

This seems a bit of OT (off-topic), but I’d like to tell you about a electronic musician called Aphex Twin (Richard David James). He makes crazy electronic music… but some songs have an interesting feature. His biggest hit for example, Windowlicker has a spectrogram image in it.
If you look at the song as spectral image it shows a nice spiral. Another song, called ‘Mathematical Equation’ shows the face of Twin! More information can be found here: Bastwood – Aphex Twin’s face.

When running this song against my spectral analyzer I get the following result:

Not perfect, but it seems to be Twin’s face!

Determining the key music points

The next step in Shazam’s algorithm is to determine some key points in the song, save those points as a hash and then try to match on them against their database of over 8 million songs. This is done for speed, the lookup of a hash is O(1) speed. That explains a lot of the awesome performance of Shazam!

Because I wanted to have everything working in one weekend (this is my maximum attention span sadly enough, then I need a new project to work on) I kept my algorithm as simple as possible. And to my surprise it worked.

For each line the in spectrum analysis I take the points with the highest magnitude from certain ranges. In my case: 40-80, 80-120, 120-180, 180-300.

01 //For every line of data:


03 for (int freq = LOWER_LIMIT; freq < UPPER_LIMIT-1; freq++) {

04     //Get the magnitude:

05     double mag = Math.log(results[freq].abs() + 1);


07     //Find out which range we are in:

08     int index = getIndex(freq);


10     //Save the highest magnitude and corresponding frequency:

11     if (mag > highscores[index]) {

12         highscores[index] = mag;

13         recordPoints[index] = freq;

14     }

15 }


17 //Write the points to a file:

18 for (int i = 0; i < AMOUNT_OF_POINTS; i++) {

19     fw.append(recordPoints[i] + "\t");

20 }

21 fw.append("\n");


23 // ... snip ...


25 public static final int[] RANGE = new int[] {40,80,120,180, UPPER_LIMIT+1};


27 //Find out in which range

28 public static int getIndex(int freq) {

29     int i = 0;

30     while(RANGE[i] < freq) i++;

31         return i;

32     }

33 }

When we record a song now, we get a list of numbers such as:

01 33  56  99  121 195

02 30  41  84  146 199

03 33  51  99  133 183

04 33  47  94  137 193

05 32  41  106 161 191

06 33  76  95  123 185

07 40  68  110 134 232

08 30  62  88  125 194

09 34  57  83  121 182

10 34  42  89  123 182

11 33  56  99  121 195

12 30  41  84  146 199

13 33  51  99  133 183

14 33  47  94  137 193

15 32  41  106 161 191

16 33  76  95  123 185

If I record a song and look at it visually it looks like this:

(all the red dots are ‘important points’)

Indexing my own music

With this algorithm in place I decided to index all my 3000 songs. Instead of using the microphone you can just open mp3 files, convert them to the correct format, and read them the same way we did with the microphone, using an AudioInputStream. Converting stereo music into mono-channel audio was a bit trickier then I hoped. Examples can be found online (requires a bit too much code to paste here) have to change the sampling a bit.


The most important part of the program is the matching process. Reading Shazams paper they use hashing to get matches and the decide which song was the best match.

Instead of using difficult point-groupings in time I decided to use a line of our data (for example “33, 47, 94, 137″) as one hash: 1370944733
(in my tests using 3 or 4 points works best, but tweaking is difficult, I need to re-index my mp3 every time!)

Example hash-code using 4 points per line:

01 //Using a little bit of error-correction, damping

02 private static final int FUZ_FACTOR = 2;


04 private long hash(String line) {

05     String[] p = line.split("\t");

06     long p1 = Long.parseLong(p[0]);

07     long p2 = Long.parseLong(p[1]);

08     long p3 = Long.parseLong(p[2]);

09     long p4 = Long.parseLong(p[3]);

10     return  (p4-(p4%FUZ_FACTOR)) * 100000000 + (p3-(p3%FUZ_FACTOR)) * 100000 + (p2-(p2%FUZ_FACTOR)) * 100 + (p1-(p1%FUZ_FACTOR));

11 }

Now I create two data sets:

- A list of songs, List<String> (List index is Song-ID, String is songname)
- Database of hashes: Map<Long, List<DataPoint>>

The long in the database of hashes represents the hash itself, and it has a bucket of DataPoints.

A DataPoint looks like:

01 private class DataPoint {


03     private int time;

04     private int songId;


06     public DataPoint(int songId, int time) {

07         this.songId = songId;

08         this.time = time;

09     }


11     public int getTime() {

12         return time;

13     }

14     public int getSongId() {

15         return songId;

16     }

17 }

Now we already have everything in place to do a lookup. First I read all the songs and generate hashes for each point of data. This is put into the hash-database.
The second step is reading the data of the song we need to match. These hashes are retrieved and we look at the matching datapoints.

There is just one problem, for each hash there are some hits, but how do we determine which song is the correct song..? Looking at the amount of matches? No, this doesn’t work…
The most important thing is timing. We must overlap the timing…! But how can we do this if we don’t know where we are in the song? After all, we could just as easily have recorded the final chords of the song.

By looking at the data I discovered something interesting, because we have the following data:

- A hash of the recording
- A matching hash of the possible match
- A song ID of the possible match
- The current time in our own recording
- The time of the hash in the possible match

Now we can substract the current time in our recording (for example, line 34) with the time of the hash-match (for example, line 1352). This difference is stored together with the song ID. Because this offset, this difference, tells us where we possibly could be in the song.
When we have gone through all the hashes from our recording we are left with a lot of song id’s and offsets. The cool thing is, if you have a lot of hashes with matching offsets, you’ve found your song.

The results

For example, when listening to The Kooks – Match Box for just 20 seconds, this is the output of my program:

01 Done loading: 2921 songs


03 Start matching song...


05 Top 20 matches:


07 01: 08_the_kooks_-_match_box.mp3 with 16 matches.

08 02: 04 Racoon - Smoothly.mp3 with 8 matches.

09 03: 05 Röyksopp - Poor Leno.mp3 with 7 matches.

10 04: 07_athlete_-_yesterday_threw_everyting_a_me.mp3 with 7 matches.

11 05: Flogging Molly - WMH - Dont Let Me Dia Still Wonderin.mp3 with 7 matches.

12 06: coldplay - 04 - sparks.mp3 with 7 matches.

13 07: Coldplay - Help Is Round The Corner (yellow b-side).mp3 with 7 matches.

14 08: the arcade fire - 09 - rebellion (lies).mp3 with 7 matches.

15 09: 01-coldplay-_clocks.mp3 with 6 matches.

16 10: 02 Scared Tonight.mp3 with 6 matches.

17 11: 02-radiohead-pyramid_song-ksi.mp3 with 6 matches.

18 12: 03 Shadows Fall.mp3 with 6 matches.

19 13: 04 Röyksopp - In Space.mp3 with 6 matches.

20 14: 04 Track04.mp3 with 6 matches.

21 15: 05 - Dress Up In You.mp3 with 6 matches.

22 16: 05 Supergrass - Can't Get Up.mp3 with 6 matches.

23 17: 05 Track05.mp3 with 6 matches.

24 18: 05The Fox In The Snow.mp3 with 6 matches.

25 19: 05_athlete_-_wires.mp3 with 6 matches.

26 20: 06 Racoon - Feel Like Flying.mp3 with 6 matches.


28 Matching took: 259 ms


30 Final prediction: with 16 matches.

It works!!

Listening for 20 seconds it can match almost all the songs I have. And even this live recording of the Editors could be matched to the correct song after listening 40 seconds!

Again it feels like magic! :-)

Currently, the code isn’t in a releasable state and it doesn’t work perfectly. It has been a pure weekend-hack, more like a proof-of-concept / algorithm exploration.

Maybe, if enough people ask about it, I’ll clean it up and release it somewhere. Or turn it into a huge online empire like Shazam… who knows!


Recent Techrights' Posts

Let's Hope GNU Makes it to 100
Can GNU still be in active use in 2083? Maybe.
GNU is 40, Linux is Just 32
Today it's exactly 40 years since Richard Stallman sent a message regarding GNU
GNU/Linux and Free Software News Mostly in Tux Machines Now
We've split the coverage
Links 27/09/2023: GNOME Raves and Firefox 118
Links for the day
Links 27/09/2023: 3G Phase-Out, Monopolies, and Exit of Rupert Murdoch
Links for the day
IBM Took a Man’s Voice, Pitting Him Against His Own Work, While Companies Profit from Low-Effort Garbage Generated by Bots and “Self-Service”
Reprinted with permission from Ryan Farmer
Links 26/09/2023: KDE, Programming, and More
Links for the day
Mozilla Promotes the Closed Web and Proprietary Webapps That Are Security and Privacy Hazards
This is just another reminder that the people who run Mozilla don't know the history of Firefox, don't understand the Web, and are beholden to "GAFAM", not to Firefox users
Debian More Like an Exploitative Sweatshop Than a Family
Wiltshire is riding a high horse in the UK, talking down to Indians who are "low-level" volunteers in his kingdom of authoritarians, guarded by an army of British lawyers who bully bloggers
Small Computers in Large Numbers: A Pipeline of Open Hardware
They guard and prioritise their "premiums", causing severe price hikes due to supply/demand disparities.
Microsoft Deserves a Medal for Being Worst at Security (the Media Deserves a Medal for Cover-up)
There are still corruptible/bribed publishers that quote Microsoft staff like they're security gurus
Real Life Should be Offline, Not Online, and It Requires Free Software
Resistance means having the guts to say "no!", even in the face of great societal burden and peer pressure
10 Reasons to Permanently Export or Liberate Your Site From WordPress, Drupal, and Other Bloatware
There are certainly more more advantages, but 10 should suffice for now
About 200,000 Objects in Techrights Web Site
This hopefully helps demonstrate just how colossal the migration actually is
Good Teachers Would Tell Kids to Quit Social Control Media Rather Than Participate in It (Teaching Means Education, Not Misinformation)
Insist that classrooms offer education to children rather than offer children to corporations
Twitter: From Walled Gardens to Paywalls and/or Amplifiers of Fascism
There's moreover a push to promote politicians who are as scummy as Twitter's owner
The World Wide Web is Being Confiscated From Us (Like Syndication Was Withdrawn About a Decade Ago) and We Need to Fight Back
We're worse off when fewer people promote RSS feeds and instead outsource to social control media (censorship, surveillance, manipulation)
Next Up: Restoring IRC Log Pipelines, Bulletins/Full Text RSS, Wiki (Archived, Static), and Pipelines for Daily Links
There are still many tasks left ahead of us, but we've progressed a lot
An Era of Rotting Technology, Migration Crises, and Cliffhanging
We've covered examples from IBM, resembling the Microsoft world
First Iteration of Techrights as 100% Static Pages Web Site
We want to champion another decade or two of positive impact and opinionated analysis
Links 25/09/2023: Patent News and Coding
some remaining links for today
Steam Deck is Mostly Good in the Sense That It Weakens Microsoft's Dominance (Windows)
The Steam Deck is mostly a DRM appliance
SUSE is Just Another Black Cat Working for Proprietary Giants/Monopolies
SUSE's relationship with firms such as these generally means that SUSE works for authority, not for community, and when it comes to cryptography it just follows guidelines from the US government
IBM is Selling Complexity, Not GNU/Linux
It's not about the clients, it's about money
Birthday of Techrights in 6 Weeks (Tux Machines and Techrights Reach Combined Age of 40 in 2025)
We've already begun the migration to static
Linux Foundation: We Came, We Saw, We Plundered
Linux Foundation staff uses neither Linux nor Open Source. They're essentially using, exploiting, piggybacking goodwill gestures (altruism of volunteers) while paying themselves 6-figure salaries.
Security Isn't the Goal of Today's Software and Hardware Products
Any newly-added layer represents more attack surface
Linux Too Big to Be Properly Maintained When There's an Incentive to Sell More and More Things (Complexity and Narrow Support Window)
They want your money, not your peace of mind. That's a problem.
Modern Web Means Proprietary Trash
Mozilla is financially beholden to Google and thus we cannot expect any pushback or for Firefox to "reclaims the Web" a second time around
Godot 4.2 is Approaching, But After What Happened to Unity All Game Developers Should be Careful
We hope Unity will burn in a massive fire and, as for Godot, we hope it'll get rid of Microsoft
GNU/Linux Has Conquered the World, But Users' Freedom Has Not (Impediments Remain in Hardware)
Installing one's system of choice on a device is very hard, sometimes impossible
Another Copyright Lawsuit Against Microsoft (or its Proxy) for Misuse of Large Works by Chatbot
Some people mocked us for saying this day would come; chatbots are a huge disappointment and they're on very shaky legal ground
Privacy is Not a Crime, Reporting Hidden Facts Is Not a Crime Either
the powerful companies/governments/societies get to know everything about everybody, but if anyone out there discovers or shares dark secrets about those powerful companies/governments/societies, that's a "crime"
United Workforce Always Better for the Workers
In the case of technology, it is possible that a lack of collective action is because of relatively high salaries and less physically-demanding jobs
Purge of Software Freedom and Its Voices
Reprinted with permission from Ryan Farmer
GNOME and GTK Taking Freedom Away From Users
Reprinted with permission from Ryan Farmer